Types of Changes
These are changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance.
Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc.
Chemical changes result in new substances.
Combustion, oxidation, decomposition
Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
Law of Conservation of Mass
a la it dow as a i o testa le a io
that, i all the operatio s of art a d ature,
nothing is created; an equal amount of matter exists both before and after the
In 1974 Rowland and Molina discovered that chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
may be depleting the supply of ozone in the upper atmosphere by reacting with it.
CFCs were used for years as aerosol propellants and r
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er of those parti les.
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of atoms or ions of each element in the compound.
Finding Empirical Formulas
Chapter 14: Chemical Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics: The area of chemistry involving the speeds or rates of reactions.
14.1 - Factors that Affect Reaction Rates
Reactions involve the breaking and forming of bonds, their speeds depend
13.3 - Factors Affecting Solubility
The extent to which a substance dissolves in another depends on the nature of both the
solute and the solvent, temperature and for gases, pressure.
Solute - Solvent Interactions
Substances have a natural
13.6 - Colloids
Colloidal Dispersions or Colloids: Intermediate types of dispersions or suspensions.
Form the dividing line between solutions and heterogeneous mixtures.
Can be solids, liquids or gases, like solutions.
Tyndall Effect: The
14.4 - The Change of Concentration with Time
Rate laws enable us to calculate the rate of a reaction from the rate constant and reactant
Rate laws can also be converted into equations that tell us what the concentrations of t
14.2 - Reaction Rates
The speed of an event is defined as the change that occurs in a given interval of time.
Reaction Rates: The change in the concentration of reactants or products per unit time.
Usually measured in molarity per second (
Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions
Component: Each of the substances in a solution.
Solvent: The component that is present in greatest amount.
Solutes: The other components left over from the solvent.
13.1 - The Solution Process
13.2 - Saturated Solutions and Solubility
Crystallization: The process that is the opposite of the solution process.
When the rates of these opposing processes become equal, no further net increase in the
amount of solute in solution occurs
14.3 - Concentration and Rate
One way of studying the effects of concentration on reaction rate is to determine the way
in which the rate at the beginning of a reaction (the initial rate) depends on the starting
Rate Law: Th
13.5 - Colligative Properties
Colligative Properties: Physical properties that depend on its quantity and not on its kind
or identity, such as the lowering of the freezing point or raising of the boiling point.
Lowering the Vapor Pressure
All Matter in universe is composed of Atoms
Elements are composed of only 1 type of atom.
Atoms are mostly empty space.
Atoms have Electrons which are very small and are negatively charged and have a
negligible mass (mass = 0).
These are generally rapid reactions that produce a flame.
Most often involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air.
CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)
C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g) 3 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)
How Many Cookies Can I Make?
You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients.
Once this family runs out of sugar, they will stop making cookies (at least any cookies you would
want to eat).
In this example the sugar wou
Atoms having the same atomic numbers and different mass numbers are called Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
The react che icall the sa e as the
or al for
of the ele e t
They are frequent
Intro to Chemistry
In this science we study matter and the changes it undergoes.
The scientific method is simply a systematic approach to solving problems.
We define matter as anything that has mass and takes up space.
Atoms are t
Chemistry of the Environment
Temperature varies greatly with altitude.
However, there is not a linear relationship between altitude and temperature.
Although the relationship between altitude and pressure is not linear, pressure does decrease
13.4 - Ways of Expressing Concentration
Dilute: A solution with a relatively small concentration of solute.
Concentrated: A solution with a relatively large concentration of solute.
Qualitative terms to describe solutions: dilute, concentr