Difference between computer organization & computer architecture
- Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems.
E.g. Circuit design, control signals, memory types
How does computer work?
- Logical a
o three parts?
1. Sign(1 bit) - stores a zero ( for positive) and a one ( for negative)
2. Mantissa(when written in scientific notation)/significand (computers)(23 bits) - The
size of the significand determines the precision (accuracy) of
o Hamming codes
The number of but positions in which two code words differ hamming distance
Hamming codes are code words formed by adding redundant check bits, or parity bits, to a data
word. So a code word is the data bits + the parity bits (a.k.a. redu
Character codes ASCII, EBCDIC, Unicode what are major differences between
Advantage of Unicode? Intel computers use which (other than if coding java)?
A code is a pattern of a given number of bits which represent characters
ASCII = American Standard
DRAM (dynamic ram) consists of capacitors that slowly leak their change over time
thus they must be refreshed every few milliseconds to prevent great data loss
SRAM (static ram) consist of circuits similar to the D flip flop very fat memory,
ISA is differentiated by
(1) The number of bits per instruction (32 or 64 bit)
(2) Stack based or register based operands (data storage) or memory-memory(e.g
mainframe), or register memory (eg. intel)
(3) The number of explicit operands
Carry/overflow - determine if you have carry and/or overflow condition/s and determine if sum represents correct answer. Carry is generally used for unsigned arithmetic and overflow for signed arithmetic. An overflow occurs if two positive number are adde
Negative numbers show in: signed magnitude, one's complement, two's complement.
If the signs are the same just add them normally and supply the sign at the end by put a one instead of the last zero if you have different sign you add them normally ( in thi
A nibble is
Max value in an unsigned byte = 255 in a word = 65,535
Max value in an signed + byte = 127 in a word = 32,767
Max value in an signed - byte = 128 in a word = 32,768
A bit is a state of on or off in a digital circuit, sometimes states are high
open architecture mean?
It is a type of architecture that allows adding,upgrading, and swapping components
four generations of computers, e.g., first generation used vacuum tubes.
Zero generation: Mechanical calculating machines (1642-1945)