Ontological Argument - Objections and Replies
Review: The Ontological Argument
1. God Exists In The Understanding
2. God Is A Possible Being
3. If Something Exists Only In The Understanding And Could Have Existed In Reality,
Then It Could Have Been Greate
Introduction to Philosophy of Religion and Ontological Argument
Philosophy of Religion: Preliminary Issues
1. Agreement vs. Tolerance
a. Agreement is not required for tolerance; people who have different beliefs can
disagree while still tolerating one ano
1. Introduction to Central Themes of Philosophy
a. Repository For Unanswered Questions
Is There A God?
What Makes An Action Right?
Do We Have Free Will?
How Do We Know What Is Real?
b. Focus On Topics in Metaphysics, Ethics and Epistemology
1. Logic: A Calculus for Good Reason
2. Clarification, Not Obfuscation-In order to accomplish this goal, philosophers make
distinctions and attempt to disambiguate concepts.
3. Examples and Counterexamples
a. Examples and Counte
The Cosmological Argument: Background
1. Aquinas: 1225-1274; Clarke: 1675-1729
2. Sources of Explanations: Three Options
a. Explained by Other
b. Explained by Nothing
c. Explained by Self
3. Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR):
a. Individual things and e
Identity Theory (Basic Materialism)
Key Question: What Makes Something a Mental State?
Reductionism in Science
Example: Water Is H20
1.c.Core Assumption: To Discover the Essence of Something, We Focus Upon
Its Physical Composition
The Knowledge Argument
1. Mary knows all physical facts about color vision.
Suppose that Mary is a brilliant neuro-scientist who has learned
everything that goes on in the brain when color vision occurs. She knows
all of the physical facts about color vis
The Mind-Body Problem
1. An Inconsistent Tetrad
Mind is non-material (spiritual).
Body is material (physical).
1.c.Mind and body interact.
Material and non-material do not interact.
2. Possible Solutions: Dualism and the Varieties of Materi
The Teleological Argument: Background
1. Aquinas, Paley (1743-1805)
2. Teleology = Purpose; this is the argument for God's existence from the apparent
purposefulness found in the universe.
3. Arguments by Analogy
a. Ex. Aspects of dogs are like cats. Dogs
Freedom and Determinism
1. There seems to be a clash between a modern account of thought on the one hand,
and free will, human agency and moral responsibility on the other.
2. We will set out the problem and some proposed solutions by considering the