Lecture Notes 1: Thinking and Learning
Objective 1: Define cognition.
Cognition is the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
Objective 2: Describe the roles of categories, hierarchies, definitions, and protot
Lecture Notes 4: Phenomenon
Objective 9: Describe the remedy for the belief perseverance phenomenon.
Belief perseverance is the clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which
they were formed has been discredited.
The remedy for belief pers
Lecture Notes 3: Decision Making
Objective 6: Describe the drawbacks and advantages of overconfidence in decision making.
Overconfidence is the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the
accuracy of ones beliefs and judgments.
Lecture Notes 2: Confirmation Bias and Fixation
Objective 4: Contrast confirmation bias and fixation, and explain how they can interfere with
effective problem solving.
Confirmation bias is a tendency to search for information that confirms ones
Lecture Notes 5: Language
Objective 12 Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through the twoword stage.
Receptive language is the babys ability to comprehend speech; productive languageability to produce words.
Babbling stage is
Lecture Notes 6: Hypothesis
Chomsky also stated that our developing language is natural and quick; we come
equipped with a sort of acquisition box.
7-month old infants can learn simple sentence structures.
Children represent a critical period of language.
Lecture Notes 10: Claus Summary
THE SUPREMACY CLAUSE AND PREEMPTION
Federal constitutional and statutory law and treaties supersede their state counterparts due
to the Supremacy Clause, Article VI, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution:
This Constitution, an
Lecture Notes 9: Commerce Claus
THE COMMERCE CLAUSE
Commerce Clause: Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution empowers Congress [t]o
regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the
Since 1824, the Sup
Lecture Notes 8: FEDERALISM
Federal Government: A form of government where states form a union and the sovereign
power is divided between the national government and the various states.
The Privileges and Immunities Clause: Article IV of the U.S. Constitu
Lecture Notes 7: Images
Objective 15: Discuss the value of thinking in images.
Mentally simulating an action activates neural networks and vise-versa.
Outcome stimulation, where you think only for the outcome, processes simulation where
you think of how t