Initiated with the voyage of Christopher Columbus: 1492. Definition: Global exchange of biota (plants, animals, germs) between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Brings problems and benefits to human societies. Leads to major tra
Portuguese in the Indian Ocean
There are already competitors: Arab, Persian and Indian Muslims. They have a closed system. Portuguese become dominant traders in the sixteenth century, but how? They are far from home.
The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Founded by Emperor Hongwu (r. 13681398) Used traveling officials called Mandarins and large number of eunuchs to maintain control Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) experiments with sea expeditions, moves capital north to B
Siege of Vienna, 1529
The Islamic empires, 1500-1800
The Ottoman Empire (12891923)
Osman leads bands of semi nomadic Turks to become ghazi: Muslim religious warriors
Mehmed II ("the Conqueror," 1451-1481) Capture of Constantinople, 1453 Renamed
Innovations in European Thought and Practice: The Reformation
Traditional Religion: Major source of European identity. Catholic Monopoly. Belief that religious pluralism and tolerance is bad. Authoritarian-church controls information. Bible reading n
A Society of Readers
Movement from oral transmission of knowledge to print. Printing presses around 1450. By 1800, Europe is most literate area by far. Leads to major social changes.
Causes of literacy.
Urbanization. Reformation. Diffusion of
The Spanish Colonies
The Spanish Caribbean
Spanish mariners meet indigenous Tainos (Arawaks): semi sedentary groups Disappointed that Tainos had no spices, silks Indians are eventually forced to pay tribute to Spanish settlers Tribute is usually