EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 17: Contaminant Hydrology 1 Dr. Pengfei Zhang Types of Groundwater Contaminants A wide variety of contaminants have been found in groundwater. These include inorganic cations (e.g., heavy metals), inorganic anions (

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 16: Solute Transport in Saturated Media Dr. Pengfei Zhang Introduction In this lecture we will discuss the transport of dissolved solutes in groundwater, the so-called mass transport or solute transport. The transpo

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 15: Water Chemistry 2 Dr. Pengfei Zhang Carbonate Chemistry In non-urban, non-industrial areas, the pH of rain and melted snow falls in the range between 5 and 6. This pH results from equilibration of precipitation

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 14: Water Chemistry 1 Dr. Pengfei Zhang Concentration Units Molar concentration (M) defines the number of moles of a chemical species in one liter of solution (mol/L). One mole (mol) of a substance is its formula we

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 13: Well Hydraulics 2 Dr. Pengfei Zhang Determining Aquifer Parameters from Time-Drawdown Data In the past lecture we discussed how to calculate drawdown if we know the hydrologic properties of the aquifer. These hy

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 12: Well Hydraulics 1 Dr. Pengfei Zhang Radial Flow to a Well The exploitation of a groundwater basin leads to water-level declines that limit the yields of the basin. Therefore, one of the primary goals of groundwa

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 11: Regional Groundwater Flow Dr. Pengfei Zhang Steady Regional Groundwater Flow in Unconfined Aquifers A groundwater basin is defined as a three-dimensional closed system through which groundwater flows from areas

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 10: Equations of Groundwater Flow Dr. Pengfei Zhang Equations of Groundwater Flow Groundwater flow can be described by partial differential equations where the spatial coordinates, x, y, z, and time, t, are the inde

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 9: Flow Nets Dr. Pengfei Zhang Specific Discharge and Average Linear Velocity Recall Darcys law:
h h dh Q = KA a b = KA L dl
(9-1)
It states that the flow (discharge) will be proportional to the hydraulic gradient

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 7: Heterogeneity and Anisotropy Dr. Pengfei Zhang Heterogeneity and Anisotropy Hydrologic properties (hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, etc.) may vary through space within a geological formation. The spatial

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 6: Darcys Law and Hydraulic Conductivity Dr. Pengfei Zhang Darcys Law We discussed Darcys experiment in last lecture and now let us go back to Darcys law:
h h dh Q = KA a b = KA L dl
(6-1)
The quantity dh represent

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 5: Hydraulic Head and Fluid Potential Dr. Pengfei Zhang Darcys Experiment The first studies of the movement of water through rock and sediment were performed by the French engineer Henry Darcy. Darcy used a column f

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 4: Porosity and Permeability Dr. Pengfei Zhang Porosity of Earth Materials The porosity of earth materials is defined as the part of rock or soil that is void space, often expressed as a percentage: V n= v (4-1) VT

EAS44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 2: The Hydrologic Cycle Dr. Pengfei Zhang Water Water exists in three phases: liquid, solid, and vapor. On the phase diagram (Figure 2-1), the point at which vapor, solid, and liquid all exist in equilibrium is calle

EAS 44600 Groundwater Hydrology Lecture 1: Introduction Dr. Pengfei Zhang Introduction The Woburn Site
Aberjona River
Figure 1-1. Aerial photo showing the locations of Well G, Well H, Beatrice Foods, and W. R. Grace (Courtesy of Scott Bair).
1-1
The city