In 2009, the journal Free Inquiry summarized the criticism of the
Cairo Declaration in an editorial: "We are deeply concerned with
the changes to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by a
coalition of Islamic states within the United Nations that w
he largest customer of Israeli military
equipment and Israel is the secondlargest military partner of India after the
Russian Federation. In Africa, Ethiopia
is Israel's main and closest ally in the
continent due to common political,
religious and se
History for Guidance (October 4,
2007). Quote: The major ones
were recorded along the Jordan
Valley in the years 31 B.C.E.,
363 C.E., 749 C.E., and 1033
C.E. "So roughly, we are talking
about an interval of every 400
years. If we follow the patterns
Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran at the entrance of
the Gulf of Aqaba. The blockade closed Israel's sea lane
to East Africa and the Far East, hindering the
development of Israel's southern port of Eilat and its
hinterland, the Nege. Another impor
every 80 years.
Note: Until 1995, figures for Christians also included Others.
In 2016, Israel's population was an estimated 8,541,000
million people, of whom 6,388,800 (74.8%) were recorded by the
civil government as Jews. 1,775,400 Arabs c
1. Esposito, John L.
2. . Taylor & Francis.
p. 16. ISBN 9781136824685.
Retrieved20 August 2015.
3. Jump up^ Chapra, Muhammad Umer
(2000), The Future of Economics: An
Islamic Perspective, Leicester: The
Islamic Foundation, p.118, ISBN 978-086037-2752
Immigration to Israel in the years 19482008. The two peaks, of
at least 200,000 each, were in 1949 and 1990.
Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and
is often referred to as a Jewish state. The country's Law of
Return grants all Jews
from the Israeli Defence Force regularly enter pans of the
territory and/or deploy missile attacks, drones and sonic
bombs into Gaza. Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone
that stretches deep into Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone
they are shot on sight.
First JewishRoman War
The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking
control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean civil war.
The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in
Judea eventually led to the installation of He
er country for that period until 2003.
The United Kingdom is seen as
having a "natural" relationship with Israel
on account of the British Mandate for
Palestine. Relations between the two
countries were also made stronger by
eli Rescue and Search Team (FIRST),
Israeli Flying Aid (IFA), Save a
Child's Heart (SACH) and LATET.
Main articles: Israel Defense
Forces and Israeli security forces
Further information: List of wars involving
Israel, List of
favour and consent of the king of
Egypt in return for payment of
Jerusalem. pp. 3440.
Jump up^ Sefer HaCharedim
Mitzvat Tshuva Chapter 3.
Maimonides established a
yearly holiday for himself and
his sons, 6 Cheshvan,
commemorating the day he
Marital jurisprudence, including Nikah, the
marriage contract; and divorce, known
as Khula if initiated by a woman.
Criminal jurisprudence, including Hudud,
fixed punishments; Tazir, discretionary
punishment; Qisas or retaliation; Diyya or
scholars of Islam, such as Yusuf al-Qaradawi and Sulaiman AlAlwan, have supported suicide attacks against Israeli civilians,
arguing that they are army reservists and hence should be
considered as soldiers, while Hamid bin Abdallah al-Ali
giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority.
makhtesh in the world is Ramon Crater in the Negev, which
measures 40 by 8 kilometers (25 by 5 mi). A report on the
environmental status of the Mediterranean basin states that Israel
In 1955, Egyptian President
. Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 13
Jump up^ Silke, Andrew
(2004). Research on Terrorism:
Trends, Achievements and
Failures. Routledge. p. 149 (256
pages). ISBN 978-0-7146-82730. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
historic collective reasoning on the issue is not
available. Qiyas represents analogical deduction, the support for
using it in fiqh is based on Quran 2:59, and this methodology was
started by Abu Hanifa. This principle is considered weak by
Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was
aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the nongovernment sponsoredMossad LeAliyah Bet ("Institution for Illegal
Immigration"). Both groups facilitated regular immigration
1. gion-State Relationship and the Right to
Freedom of Religion or Belief: A
Comparative Textual Analysis of the
Constitutions of Predominantly Muslim
Countries." Georgetown Journal of
International Law, volume 36, issue 4;
also see Sharia Law profile by
Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh)
Main article: Fiqh
Fiqh (school of Islamic jurisprudence) represents the process of
deducing and applying sharia principles, as well as the collective
body of specific laws deduced from sharia using the fiqh
have been evaluated on authenticity, usually by determining the
reliability of the narrators that transmitted them. For Shias, the
Sunnah include life and sayings of The Twelve Imams.
Quran versus Hadith
Muslims who reject the Hadith as a so
1. Ijma, collective reasoning and consensus
amongst authoritative Muslims of a
particular generation, and its
interpretation by Islamic scholars. This
fiqh principle for sharia is derived
from Quran 4:59. Typically, the
exonerated the government of responsibility for failures before
and during the war, but public anger forced Prime Minister Golda
Meir to resign.
Further conflict and peace process
Further information: IsraeliPalestinian peace process
In July 1976 an
has an advanced degree program,
Continuing the strong theatrical
traditions of the Yiddish theatre in
Eastern Europe, Israel maintains a
vibrant theatre scene. Founded in
1918, Habima Theatre in Tel Aviv is
Israel's oldest repertory theater
company and na
Elsewhere, enforcement of Islamic values in accordance with
sharia is the responsibility of Polisi Perda Syariah Islam in Aceh
province of Indonesia, Committee for the Propagation of Virtue
and the Prevention of Vice (Gaza Strip) in parts of Palestin
efense spending to GDP of all developed countries, only
topped by Oman and Saudi Arabia. In 1984, for
example, the country spent 24% of its GDP on defense.
By 2006, that figure had dropped to 7.3%. Israel is one of
the world's largest arms ex