immune system- Fights the
Evolution of the
aliscists an immune
Antigens are any 3D sturcture
that can reproduce by
anything other then itself.
Invading antigen is
faced with a figh
IV. DNA replication
A. Necessary for cell division
B. DNA replication requires
energy and several enzymes
DNA polymerase I &III
Expose replicating cell to 3H-thymidine
Cell death. These electron micrographs show cells that have died by (A) necrosis or (B and C) apoptosis.
The cells in (A) and (B) died in a culture dish, whereas the cell in
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency
Luc Montagnier of the Pastieur Institute, Paris, France
1983 identified LAV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus)
HIV/AIDS is presently the greatest of threats to mankind and, unlike the Plague, it
will not go away. This wil
First came evidence that mRNA
transmits genetic information.
This was followed by the elucidation
of the code that makes that possible.
After phage infection of bacteria RNA is the
1st thing synthesized.
RNA found i
Spearating one cell from a whole bunch of. Laser beam is used to cut the cell out.
Figure 8-3 Molecular Biology of the Cell ( Garland Science 2008)
When growing cells, they become slightly transformed.
Putting cells in culture and hav
Early DNA Expts.
Miescher in late 1880 s began to
characterize cellular nucleic acids
Griffith s transformation experiments in
1928, followed by Avery, McCleod &
McCarty s isolation of the transforming
principle in 1944
Hershey & Chase phage
Figure 19-34 Fluctuating Levels of Mitotic
Cyclin and MPF
During the Cell Cycle
Figure 19-35 Phosphorylation and
the Activation of a Cdk-Cyclin Complex
Figure 19-37 The Anaphase-Promoting
Complex and the
The study of cellular growth.
These cells when placed in a
culture are pre cancerous. These
examples are accidental mutations.
One mutation will not cause the cell to
proliferate, there must be more then one
in vital genes.
Gene to Protein
Meaning of the words
DNA to RNA
RNA to protein
DNA & RNA - chemical differences
Figure 21-3 Normal and Sickled Red Blood
Only one in prokaryo
How do cells obtain energy?
Production of ATP
Energy to do cellular work
METICULOUSLY REVIEW CONCEPTS PRESENTED IN FIGURES BELOW
1). Describe the role of calcium in the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic
The release of calcium into the bouton has two effects
C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O
Note oxygen requirement
TCA cycle - CO2, some ATP and lots of reducing
Electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation - lots of
TCA cycle - general overview
yields per molecul