Lecture Notes 7: Brain Functions
Through tiny electrical pulses scientists can see and observe messages between the neurons,
observe the brains energy-consuming activity.
Observing the effects of brain diseases and injuries is the oldest method of study
Lecture Notes 6: Hormones
Objective 10: Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system and its interaction with
the nervous system.
The endocrine system is a set of glands that secret hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones are chemical messa
Lecture Notes 4: Chemicals affecting Cells
Objective 6: Explain how drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission, and describe the
contrasting effects of agonists and antagonists.
When the brain is flooded with feel-good drugs it may stop producing
Lecture Notes 2: Cells in the body
Objective 3: Describe the parts of a neuron, and explain how its impulses are generated.
Neurons are nerve cells that are the basic building blocks of the nervous system.
Each neuron has a cell body and branching fiber
Lecture Notes 3: Nerve Cells
Objective 4: Describe how nerve cells communicate.
Santiago Ramon and Cajal described the gaps between individual nerve cells and concluded
that the neurons must each function as independent agents within the nervous system.
Lecture Notes 5: Nervous System
Objective 8: Identify the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system, and describe their
Somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles.
Automatic nervous system controls the glands
Lecture Notes 10: Cerebral Cortex
Objective 15: Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.
80% of the brains weight is in the left and right cerebral hemispheres which is mostly filled
with axon connections between the brains surface and its other r
Lecture Notes 9: Brain that influences behavior
Amygdala are two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and
are linked to emotion and it influences fear and aggression.
Experiments of monkeys and cats confirmed that amy
Lecture Notes 8: Brain Description
Objective 12: Describe the components of the brainstem, and summarize the functions of the
brainstem, thalamus, and cerebellum.
The ratio of brain size to bodys weight in humans is 1/45th.
In primitive vertebrate anima
Lecture Notes 1: Neuroscience and Behavior:
Objective 1: Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology, and describe the illfated phrenology theory.
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological.
Todays science is mostly on the brai