Early Civil Rights Movement
The New Deal
o Roosevelts Great Depression policies were not racial, but had racial
implications in the implementation.
o Social Security left out maids and farm workers. (2/5 of all black women
worked outside of the home. 85%
Resistance and Protest
o African Americans resisted white racism.
assimilation into white culture and society.
slaves running away, committing suicide, or open violent revolt
self-realization despite opposition.
Racial Uplift Theory
o Established in 1910. (result of the Niagara Movement begun by W. E.
B. Du Bois.)
o Committed to fighting for legal change. (Major emphases on court
challenges to Jim Crow legislation)
o Pledged to fight for the abolition of all forced seg
Aftermath of WWI
The War Years
o Divide among the blacks about their involvement in World War I.
o Over 400,000 blacks served in the army in WWI. (placed in segregated
units, under white officer command)
1919 - The Pivotal Year
o Failure of the U.S. to gr
Economic Rationales for Migration
o Cities promised social mobility, higher wages, and greater opportunity.
o Unskilled jobs in America's new, expanding industrial factories centered in
cities. (steel mills, auto factories, cigar plants, e
Jim Crow Laws
Late 19th-Century Alternatives
o Southern conservatives believed that those who would be friends to blacks
pushed them to positions they were unable to competently fill, had ulterior
motives and profited on black advancement.
o On the other
President Lincolns Plan
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
o Full pardon and restoration of all rights, except as to slaves, to persons
who took an oath of future loyalty and pledged to accept the abolition of
o Few groups excluded.
Historian Views of Reconstruction
William A. Dunning School
When the Civil War ended, the white South accepted the reality of
Desired for quick reintegration into the fabric of national life.
Sectional reconciliation (Andrew Joh
o Johnson grew up poor and sought opportunities for advancement (become
a prosperous landowners)
o Long and accomplished political resume (one of the most politically
qualified men who have assumed the presidency)
o Radical R
White Protective Associations
o Came to be because of Negro rule.
o Knights of the White Camelia and Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
o Goals to exercise complete authority and control over blacks in their
midst, to enforce white supremacy, to