Professor Randye Rutberg
Why you are here:
Science asks fundamental questions
How does the universe work?
Applies the scientific method in an effo
What is a glacier?
How does it move?
How does it affect the topography?
How can we identify glaciated areas?
Local glacial history
What is a glacier?
firn -> ice
ice -> flowing
Firn = part
The transport of
MASS WASTING (GRAVITY!)
Running Water Most of North
America is above sea level. Water
flows high to low sea level due to
When Runoff becomes co
1. Basic Definitions and Concepts
2. Aquifer Types
3. Environmental Effects of GW Extraction
4. Groundwater Contamination
Water Cycle: How Does Water Get Underground
Basic Definitions and Concepts
Aquifer - geological materials that can store
Aswan High Dam
Was it worth it?
Aswan is about 600
km south of Cairo the
capital of Egypt, near
the Sudan boarder.
The Aswan dam is an
which means that
there is a triangular
shaped block of
granite that holds the
disintegration, or breakdown
of rock material
Mechanical Weathering: no change
in chemical composition-just
disintegration into smaller pieces
Chemical Weathering: breakdown
as a result of chemical reactions
CaCO3+CO2+H2O -> Ca2
What is a topographic map?
A topographic map, also known as a
contour map, is a map that shows
the shape of the land using contour
It is a map that shows and elevation
field, meaning how high and low the
ground is in relation to sea
EXTI CTI N
O F D I O SAU RS
H ypothesi A steroi
An object approximately 10 kilometers
across struck just off the coast of the
Yucatan peninsula 65 million years ago.
According to scientists who maintain
that dinosaur extinction came qu
The Continental Drift
Proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915.
Supercontinent Pangaea started to
break up about 200 million years ago.
Continents "drifted" to their present
Continents "plowed" through the ocean
The Age of the Earth
-The generally accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the
solar system is about 4.55 billion years (plus or minus 1%)
-The oldest rocks which have been found so far (on the Earth)
date to about 3.8 to 3.9 billion yea
Erosion by Gravity
What is gravity?
Gravity is the attraction force between two objects
with masses. Objects on the earth and the
earth itself are the most common masses when
talking about gravity.
Gravitys effect on land
erosion is due to t
Igneous _- classified
by shape, size, and
Major Volcanoes Around the
Anatomy of a Volcano
Scientific Classification of
Volcanoes based on
Extinctvolcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely
29,000 Mt Pelee,
15,000 Mt Unzen,
Courtesy of www.swisseduc.ch
But, volcanoes cause fewer fatalities than
Based on slides prepared by:
Rick Oches, Professor of Geology & Environmental Sciences
The hypothesis that continents are mobile.
Proposed by German meteorologist Alfred Wegener.
The Origins of Oceans and Continents published in 1915.
Wegener hypothesized a former supercontinent, Pangaea.
Idea was founded on strong evidenc
What We Know,
What We Can Do
UCAR, Photo by Kate Sorensen
UCAR, Photo by Carlye Calvin
UCAR, Photo by Carlye Calvin
The atmosphere is a very thin layer surrounding the
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO
Metamorphic rocksolid-state alteration of a protolith.
Meta = change.
Morphe = form.
Protoliths are preexisting rocks.
Metamorphism can alter any prot
Geology 101 Final Exam
30 Questions on Geological Time and Plate Tectonics
How old is the earth? 4.55 Billion years old
How long ago did dinosaurs exist? 6.5 Million years ago
In what Geological era do we liv
Department of Geography
Fundamentals of Geology 101, section 051
Tuesday and Thursday, 5:35-8:15 pm, Room 1021 HN
Dr. Faye F. Melas
1032 Hunter North (10th floor of the North Building)
Tues. & Thur.
Formation of the solar system
Formation of the Earth !
The Big Bang
13.7 billion years ago (13,700,000,000 yrs)
Explosion so powerful that space itself was
propelled outwards almost instantaneously
200 Million years later, the first
New York City Geology
New York City is primarily composed of
sediments that were metamorphosed
during the Appalachian Orogeny
The Tectonic History of the Appalachian
The tectonic history of the Appalachian Mountains is divided traditionally into
Naturally occurring, inorganic,
crystalline solids with a
definite range in chemical
composition and physical
What is a mineral
Minerals are composed of atoms of
elements bonded together.
Minerals range in composition fro
ROCKS . and how to
THE ROCK CYCLE
Rocks are naturally occurring combinations or coherent
aggregates of minerals, fossils or other hard materials.
They are classified by the way in which they form. The
three rock types are: igneous, sedimenta
Investigation #3: American Museum of Natural History - Gems and Minerals Field Trip Experience
Key Earth and Space Sciences Concepts: Elements, Bonding, Minerals, Rock-Forming Minerals,
Environments of Formation
AMNH Gem Hall- Morgan Memorial
Hall of M