CPR: Chapter 9
Physiology of cardiac muscle
A. 3 types of cardiac muscle: atrial, ventricular, and specialized excitatory and conductive fibers
1. Atrial and ventricular fibers contract in the same manner as skeletal muscle, but the duration of contrac
Cell Transport Mechanisms and Cell permeability
Cell membranes are selectively permeable or differential; allowing nutrients and
substances needed to enter the cell and keeping out undesired substances. Keeps in
proteins and other substances t
The Conduction System of the Heart
The Heart muscle cells are connected at junctions called the intercalated discs. Because
there exists this communication between cells, they contract as one, as a Functional
The hearts Car
CNS neuron: the basic functional unit
-Incoming signals enter neuron through synapses mainly on neuronal dendrites but cell body as well
-Special feature of most synapses is that the signal mostly passes in a forward direction of axon to
The Heart is the size of a fist, it is found in the Mediastinum of the thorax, and is flanked by the
lungs laterally, the vertebral column at the posterior and the sternum at the anterior. The Apex of
the heart points towards the left, and the B
The color of blood is bright scarlet to dull brick red, due to the amount of oxygen. An
adult has about 5.5 liters of blood. The blood consists of 55% plasma, and 45% formed
elements (WBC, RBC and platelets).
Blood plasma is the non-living matri
Types of sensory receptors and their stimuli
-Mechanoreceptors, detects mechanical compression or stretching
-Thermoreceptors, detect changes in temperature
-Nocicepters, pain receptors (damage to tissue)
-Electromagnetic receptors, detect ligh
Somatic senses are nervous mechanism that collects information from the body and special senses are
(taste, hearing, smell, vision, touch)
Classification of somatic senses
-Mechanoreceptive somatic senses- includes both tactile and position sen
Sense of taste and smell allow us to separate undesirable and lethal food from those
that are nutritionous
Allows animals to recognize proximity to others
Tied to primitive and behaviorl functions of our nervous system
Taste- mainly func
-Visual nerve leaves the retinae passing backward through the optic nerve fibers. At the optic chiasma
the optic nerve fibers from the nasal halves of the retinae cross to the opposite sides where they join the
fibers from the o
Pain is mainly a protective mechanism for the body, it occurs whenever any tissues are being damaged and
causes person to react to remove pain. Ischemia occurs when sitting for to long (pain) to shift weight.
-Sharp, pricking, acute a
-The retina is the light sensitive portion of the eye that contains the cones (color vision), and rods (dark
vision). When the rods and ones are excited signals are transmitted through successive layers of neurons in
the retina itself and final
The eye as a camera
-Eye has four refractive interfaces:
The interface between the air and the anterior surface of the cornea
The interface between the posterior surface of the cornea and the aqueous humor
The interface between the aqueous h
Sense of taste
-Taste is mainly a function of the taste buds
-At least 13 possible or probable chemical receptors in taste cells; 2 Na, 2 K, 1 Cl, 1 adenosine, 1
inosine, 2 sweet, 2 bitter, 1 glutamate, and 1 hydrogen ion receptor.
-4 primary s
Lecture Notes 1: Neuroscience and Behavior:
Objective 1: Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology, and describe the illfated phrenology theory.
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological.
Todays science is mostly on the brai
Lecture Notes 6: Hormones
Objective 10: Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system and its interaction with
the nervous system.
The endocrine system is a set of glands that secret hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones are chemical messa
Lecture Notes 4: Chemicals affecting Cells
Objective 6: Explain how drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission, and describe the
contrasting effects of agonists and antagonists.
When the brain is flooded with feel-good drugs it may stop producing
Lecture Notes 2: Cells in the body
Objective 3: Describe the parts of a neuron, and explain how its impulses are generated.
Neurons are nerve cells that are the basic building blocks of the nervous system.
Each neuron has a cell body and branching fiber
Lecture Notes 3: Nerve Cells
Objective 4: Describe how nerve cells communicate.
Santiago Ramon and Cajal described the gaps between individual nerve cells and concluded
that the neurons must each function as independent agents within the nervous system.
Lecture Notes 5: Nervous System
Objective 8: Identify the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system, and describe their
Somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles.
Automatic nervous system controls the glands
Lecture Notes 10: Cerebral Cortex
Objective 15: Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.
80% of the brains weight is in the left and right cerebral hemispheres which is mostly filled
with axon connections between the brains surface and its other r
Lecture Notes 9: Brain that influences behavior
Amygdala are two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and
are linked to emotion and it influences fear and aggression.
Experiments of monkeys and cats confirmed that amy
Lecture Notes 8: Brain Description
Objective 12: Describe the components of the brainstem, and summarize the functions of the
brainstem, thalamus, and cerebellum.
The ratio of brain size to bodys weight in humans is 1/45th.
In primitive vertebrate anima
Lecture Notes 7: Brain Functions
Through tiny electrical pulses scientists can see and observe messages between the neurons,
observe the brains energy-consuming activity.
Observing the effects of brain diseases and injuries is the oldest method of study