Entropy is a thermodynamic state function
!S "
! q rv
# T and
! q rv
#
! T =0
Entropy is Not Conserved but increases spontaneously.
For an isolated system:
!S = (S2 " S1 ) #
! q rv
$ T #0
For a spontaneous process:
S(system) + S(surroundings) 0
! q rv
North Carolina Essential Standards
Physical Science
The North Carolina Science Essential Standards maintain the respect for local control of each Local
Education Authority (LEA) to design the specific curricular and instructional strategies that best deli
G H - TS
For a system with PV work only (dWrev* = 0):
dG = VdP SdT
The change of G with T at constant P (dP = 0), assume S is
independent of temperature:
dG = VdP SdT = SdT ;
T2
T2
dG = SdT
T1
T1
dG
= S or
dT
dG
= S
dT
If S is independent of temperature
E and H are independent of path
w and q depend on path
Initial
state:
n
T1, P1, V1
I.
T = 0
I-state:
P= P2
P = 0
V,
T = T1
V = 0
I-state:
P
V =V1 T = 0
T = T2
Intermediate
state:
n, P, V, T
Final state:
II
n (closed sys)
P2 , V2, T2
E = E (isothermal ) +
Thermodynamic paths and the
state functions
Isobaric: constant P, Psys = 0
Isothermal: Constant T, T = 0
Isochoric: constant V, V = 0
State 1
Adiabatic: q = 0
State 2
Reversible process
Cyclic path: E = 0, H = 0
The change of state functions, E, P, etc. a
Heat: energy exchange driven by
temperature difference
System: the top bar
System: both bars
TA = 20 oC
TB = 100 oC
TA = 20 oC
TB = 100 oC
Heat
q (TA TB )
q = 0 when TA = TB = Tf
q=0
20 o C < Tf < 100 o C
If heat is absorbed by the system:
If the system l
Biophysical Chemistry
CHEM350/650 SEC001/002
Please pick up your Syllabus
Biophysical Chemistry
Physical Chemistry is a set of principles
and experimental methods for exploring
chemical systems: to understand the
mechanisms and to predict the outcomes.
Bi
The rate law
The reaction order, the rate constant k
The mechanisms of reaction
Elementary reactions, the rate limiting step
The temperature dependence of the rate
Transition-state theory
Studying the kinetics
Relaxation kinetics, the diffusion c
Chemical Potential (i)
G
i
n
i T , P ,n j ni
At Equilibrium
(Constant P and T)
0
= + RT ln a
(state1) = (state 2)
Chemical reactions
Phase changes
across a membrane
State 1 reactantsState 1 liquidState 1 inside
State 2 products State 2 gas, etc.
Carnot
cycle:
dq rv
T =0
qrv
S!
; "S = (S2 # S1 ) $
T
! q rv
%T
Boltzmanns equation of entropy
S = k ln N ; k = Boltzmann' s cons. = 1.318 10
23
R
J/K=
N0
N = number of microscopic states of the system
The second law of thermodynamics
Spontaneously: S
CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS:
A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS
Jacob Bercovitch
Introduction
Research into behaviour in organizations can be divided into two
categories: normative and descriptive. Normative research is concerned
with how thin