Chapter 26: Hematological System, Page 1 of 25
20 Heme questions on midterm majority on sickle cell anemia and leukemia.
NORMAL VALUES (RANGE)
Average life cycle is 120 days.
The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in
many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine
(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb
What are the most important acid base components?
The most important acid-base components of a blood gas:
The Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCO2), dissolved in arterial
The Bicarbonate (HCO3) levels found
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome/ HLHS
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is one of the most complex cardiac defects
seen in the newborn and remains probably the most challenging to manage of all
congenital heart defects. It is one of a group of cardia
Module 15: Nursing Care of the Individual Experiencing Shock/Trauma/Disaster:
Requiring Critical Care
1. Definition: Clinical syndrome characterized by decreased tissue perfusion
and impaired cellular metabolism resulting in an imbalance betwe
Pain, Page 1 of 2
MYTHS ABOUT PAIN IN CHILDREN
Infants are neurologically immature and therefore cannot conduct pain impulses.
Infants do not remember pain, because of cortical immaturity.
Children do report pain while playing or sleeping so they must
The Difference between Type 1 & Type 2
Imagine insulin is the key that opens your cells and lets sugar enter. If sugar cant enter, it builds
up in the blood, = hungry and thirsty, and causes your body to turn to fat for energy. The
The body must maintain the delicate balance of acids
Metabolic and respiratory processes work together to
keep hydrogen ion (H+) levels normal and stable
pH of Blood
The pH of blood indicates the concentration of H+
Chapter 24: Fluid & Electrolytes, Page 1 of 15
ALTERATION IN FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE STATUS
Many questions based on dehydration.
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENT/FLUID REQUIREMENT
Maintenance fluid is the amount of fluid the body need to replace normal daily losses
Child Abuse and Neglect, Page 1 of 9
Any act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker that results in death, serious
physical or emotional harm.
Child abuse/maltreatment crosses all areas of society and all cultures, all racial , ethnic,
Vasodilators, Beta Blockers, and Calcium Channel Blockers, Page 1 of 9
ACTION: nitroglycerin decreases the pain of exertion angina primarily by MYOCARDIAL O2 DEMAND via
vasodilatation. These drugs O2 by preload (
Chapter 27: Defects of the Genitourinary System, Page 1 of 9
REVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
The urinary system is composed of:
The kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra.
The kidneys lie outside the peritoneal cavity in the upper posterior portion of th
Page 1 of 13
Eight Rights of Pediatric Medication Administration
Check order and expiration dates.
Know action of medication and potential side effects (use pharmacy, drug formulary).
Ensure that the medication provided is the medicati
Thrombus (blood clot) a fibrin network made up of platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells that
forms in an artery or vein.
Phlebitis inflammation of a vein wall.
Thrombophlebitis thrombus formation with inflammation of the vein wall.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a state of low cardiac output not a disease but a group of
manifestation related to inadequate pump performance. CHF is the inability of the heart to pump
sufficient blood to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue for oxy
A dysrhythmia is defined as an abnormality in the rate or rhythm (regularity) of the heart beat or both.
Because of their ability to lower cardiac output, dysrhythmias are associates with a high degree of
morbidity and mortality.
NORMAL CARDIAC ELECTROPHY
Chest tubes are placed in the pleural spacea potential rather than actual space between the
parietal and visceral pleurae.
The parietal (outer) pleura covers the chest wall and diaphragm.
It contains a small amount (about 50 mL) of serous flui
Chapter 32: Cerebral Palsy and Spina Bifida, Page 1 of 7
ANATOMIC DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN
Prone to head injuries with falls.
Neck may not be able to support large head
Thin cranial bones that are not well developed; unfused sutures
Chapter 19: Mental Retardation, Down Syndrome, Fragile X, Page 1 of 5
MR is defined as intelligence significantly below average, with limitation in adaptive skills.
IQ scores used to make diagnosis; in MR IQ is generally below 70-75 r
Guidelines for use of Digoxin (Lanoxin!)
Recommended Neonatal Dose, Route, and Interval
Loading or digitalizing dose:
30 to 36
37 to 48
Total Loading Dose
Divide into 3 doses over 24 hours
Chapter 10: Vaccines and Preventable Communicable Illnesses of Childhood, Page 1 of 17
The introduction of vaccines against childhood diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella,
polio, whooping Cough (pertussis), diphtheria, smallpox
Chapter 25: Cardiovascular Dysfunction (ASD, VSD, COA, PDA, TOF, TGA), Page 1 of 10
These sounds are produced by blood passing through a defective valve, great vessel, or other heart
Murmurs are classified by: intensity (grade I
Chapter 31: Musculoskeletal & Orthopedic Disorders, Page 1 of 10
MUSCULOSKELETAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN
Epiphyseal growth plate present
Bones are growing / heal faster
Bones are more pliable
Abundant blood supply to the bone
The younger the child th
Chapter 28: Hydrocephalus, Meningitis, Seizures, Page 1 of 12
Macrocephaly (large cranium) resulting in obstruction in the flow of CSF through the ventricular
system or impaired absorption in the subarachnoid space or
Prokaryote and Eukaryote Anatomy,
Energy Production and Growth
Overview of the Prokaryotic
Chief distinguishing characteristics
Their DNA is not enclosed within a
membrane and is usually a singular
circularly arranged chromosome