Abdominal cavity contains GI system, genital and urinary
As an EMT you do not need to determine the exact cause of abdominal pain
Injury To Solid Organ can cause shock and bleeding because the amount of blood vessels at the organ
Anatomy & Physiology
The Endocrine system is a complex message and control system that includes a network of
glands that produce and secrete messengers called hormones.
Endocrine glands secrete or release chemicals that are used inside the body
Purpose of secondary assessment is to perform a systematic physical examination of
the patient. (Full Body Exam)
Inspection - Looking at your patient for abnormalities or for anything that may be a problem.
Palpation - Describes the p
Pharmacology - Knowledge of medications that the EMT may assist in administering or
administer to a patent during an emergency. Also known as the science of drugs including
ingredients, preparation, uses and actions on the body.
Pharmacodynamics - Process
Allergy related emergencies may involve:
Acute airway obstruction
Tachycardia , tachypnea heart fills up with blood less smaller preload
An Allergic reaction if an exaggerated immune response to any substance caused by the body's
Identify Patient and Poison
carbon monoxide hydrogen cyanide poisoning 250x more affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen
Look for clues of how the poisoning occurred
overdose is a toxic dose of a drug
nerve agent poisoning - insecticide overdose similar from g
Central Nervous System includes brain, brainstem and spinal cord consuming 20% of O2 and
Long Nerve fibers link the cells from the spinal cord to the organs which make up the peripheral
Cerebrum is about 75% of the brain controllin
The heart is divided down the middle by the septum.
Sinus node is in the upper right part of the right atrium also known as the sinoatrial node. Then
pass to AV node . Then through ventricles via purkinje fibers.
Automaticity allows cardiac muscles to con
When ability to breath is disrupted:
Oxygen delivery to tissues and cells is compromised ( hypoperfusion hypoxia early sign
Vital organs may not function normally.
Brain Tissue will begin to die within 4-6 minutes
Oxygen reaches the body tissues
Soft tissue trauma is the leading form of injury
Death is from hemorrhage or infection
Epidermis - tough external layer that forms a watertight covering for the body
Dermis is the inner layer that gives the skin its characteristic appearance, hair follicl
Spinal injuries in region c6 and c7 result in belly breathing for adults but not for children which is
breathing with the diaphragm
PLeura covers each lung and the thoracic cavity
Surfactant allows the lungs to move freely against the inner chest wall dur
Heart is a involuntary muscle that is under the control of the ANS but it has its own regulatory
Arteries carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles connect arteries to capillaries
Capillaries are small tubes linking arterioles and venules
MVAs have 3 collisions
Collision of car against another object
Collision of passenger against interior of car
Collision of internal organs against solid body structures
Coup- contrecoup - bruising resulting in a forward and backward motion.
three parts of brain
brainstem controls breathing, BP, swallowing and pupil constriction
cerebellum controls muscle and body coordination walking, writing, playing piano
cerebrum which is the largest part divided into left and right hemispheres which cont
Three types of muscle :
Most commonly fractured bone is the clavicle
Bone marrow produces red blood cells
Skeletal muscle attaches to the bones and usually crosses at least one joint. It is a voluntary
muscle. Also called striated
Shock (hypoperfusion) describes a state of collapse or failure of the cardiovascular system to
deliver adequate oxygen and nutrients to tissues and remove metabolic wastes.
In the early stages of shock, the body will try to maintain homeostasis.
As it pro
Vaginal Bleeding can cause hypovolemic shock or hemorrhagic shock
possible causes are:
Ovaries produce Ovum (egg)
Each month one ovum from alternating ovaries is released into fallo
Exposed portion of the ear is composed entirely of cartilage covered by skin, the visible part is
the pinna. Tragus is the small rounded fleshy bulge anterior to the ear canal.
Motion of the mandible occurs at the temporomandibular joint
The neck is suppo
Which of the following abnormal breath sounds indicates obstruction of the upper airway?
A 40-Year old male crashed his motorcycle into a tree. He is semiconscious, has a snoring
respiration, and has a laceration to the forearm with minimal bleed
behavior is what you see of a person's response to their environment
behavioral crisis is any reaction to events that interferes with the activities of daily living or has
become unacceptable to the patient family or community
acute psychosis is a state o
Bruising around umbilicus is a sign of intra-abdominal bleeding.
Peritonitis can occur from infection from hollow organs rupturing. Can cause distended
abdomen, abdominal pain or muscular spasms.
It is important to assess a patient's vital signs
-Before and after you administer medication
An EMT is permitted to administer, or assist the patient in administering, all of the following
You are administering a medication t
Heat loss from the body through respiration occurs when warm air is exhaled into the
Lyme disease rash can turn into blisters
Lighting strike burns are usually superficial
Early sign of pit viper envenomation is local swelling and ecchymosis
brain tumor is structural
massive stroke structural
fever seizures should be looked at
swallowing brain stem
muscle control cerebellum
ischemic stroke is a blockage cerebral arteries
aneurysm swelling and enlargement of arterial wall
Main Goal : To identify and initiate treatment of immediate or potential life threats.
Vital Signs : The key signs used to evaluate the patient's condition.
Form a General Impression
Formed to determine the priority of care and is based
History Taking provides detail about the patient's chief complaint and an account of the patient's
signs and symptoms.
Be Sure to Document:
Date of Incident
All times of assessments and interventions
5 Questions for scene size up
1. Body Substance Isolation (PPE) (MANDATORY FAILURE TO KNOW IS CRITICAL
2. Is my scene safe? (MANDATORY FAILURE TO KNOW IS CRITICAL FAILURE)
3. how many patients do i have
4. MOI(mechanism of injury for trauma)NOI(n
covers heart pleural space *
scene of a crime refrain from touching things that don't have to do care for patient
one rescuer cpr initial pulse check should be no more than 5-10 seconds *
avoid trauma to injured spine long spine board
albuterol? medical c
hypoglycemia - tachycardia cool clammy skin
DKA - body has too much glucose
hyperglycemia slower symptoms comared to hypo
tearing pain between scapula aortic aneyursym
common signs of cardiogenic shock Deviated trachea and rohnci
acute pulmonary edema hyp