3) active tubular secretion
active transport systems in the kidney tubules that pump drugs from the blood to
the tubular urine.
Ions are not lipid soluble, drugs that are ionized at the pH of tubular urine will remain in
the tubule and be excreted.
Unit II: Principles of Pharmacology
Chapter 4: Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics movement of drugs throughout the body
Absorption is defined as the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the
GI tract and blood
Distribution is defi
(Chapter 5: Pharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics the study of what drugs do to the body and how they do it.
determine the minimum amount of drug we can use, the maximum response a
drug can elicit, and how much we need to 3) activ
crease the dosage in order to produce the desired increase in response.
Graded * as the dosage increases, the response becomes progressively
o Therapeutic effects can be adjusted for patients, tailored treatment.
raise or lower the dosage until a
Interactions that increase therapeutic effects or reduce toxicity are desirable.
Interactions that reduce therapeuWhen the receptors of a cell are continually
exposed to an agonist, the cell usually becomes less responsive desensitized,
Oral administration can lead to inactivation of certain drugs.
Other drugs (eg, nitroglycerin) undergo extensive inactivation as they pass
through the liver, a phenomenon known as the first-pass effect
rapid inactivation of s
any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or
patient harm, while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional,
patient, or consumer.
13 types of medication errors*
The three most co
that component of a drug response that is caused by psychologic factors and not
by the biochemical or physiologic properties of the drug.
o If a patient believes that a medication is going to be effective, then
placebo responses are likely
When the receptors of a cell are continually exposed to an agonist, the cell usually
becomes less responsive desensitized, refractory, down-regulation
Due to destruction of receptors by the cell, modification of cell and they dont
respond as well.
tic effects or increase toxicity are detrimental.
Be mindful of drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range
o an interaction that produces a modest increase in drug levels can cause
o an interaction that produces a modest decrease in drug levels