INTRODUCTION
TO
STABILITY
AND
CONTROL
F-8 PIO Tests
F-22 PIO
1
F-4 PIO
F-16 Stores Vibration
Lesson 35 Overview
Axis System
Aircraft Controls
Traditional
Alternate Control Methods
Aircraft Motions
Stability Definitions
Static Stability
Dynamic Stabili
ANICS
umber at point
ontours of the
the properties
:ra. With the
airspeed. The
denoted by a
ity, the Mach
estrearn Mach
the oweld,
where in the
onic ow, the
try, transomc
teen approxj_
nena become
include, for
layers. Typjs
Inc is greatly
.F. 4 for more
[
Propulsion
Drag Polar Whole Aircraft
CD
Total
CD = CD0 + k CL2
Induced Drag (Drag due to Lift)
Parasite Drag (Zero Lift Drag)
CL
Thrust Required (TR )
TR = D = CD q S
= [CD0 + k CL2] q S
C
( CL = L / q S = W / q S )
(1 g flight)
TR = CD0 ( V2) S + k W2 /
T
I
C
G
Airspeed Measurements
ICeT
E
Airspeed Fun (part 1)
In his book, Sled Driver, SR-71 Blackbird pilot
Brian Shul writes: "I'll always remember a certain
radio exchange that occurred one day as Walt (my
back-seater) and I were screaming across
Souther
Wing Design Methods
Aerodynamic Coefficients
Airplane Convention
L,n
V
D,l
Y ,m
Aerodynamic Coefficients
CL = L
qS
CY = Y
qS
CD = D
qS
Cn = n
qSb
Cm = m
qSc
Cl = l
qSb
2
2
q = 1 V = p M
2
2
1
Wing Geometry
For straight tapered wing surfaces
AR = b / S
=
How Airplanes Fly
Bob Kelley-Wickemeyer
Chief Engineer - Aerodynamics
& Enabling Technology
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Agenda
Basic Physics of Flight
Whats happening during a flight
Rule of Thumb airplane design
Testing the airplanes ability to fly
Basic
NACA Airfoils
6-Feb-08
AE 315 Lesson 10: Airfoil nomenclature and properties
1
Definitions: Airfoil Geometry
z
Mean camber line
x
Chord line
Chord
x=0
Leading edge
x=c
Trailing edge
NACA Nomenclature
1st
NACA 2421
Digit: Maximum camber is 2% of 2D airfoil
STABILITY CRITERIA
AND
CHANGING STABILITY
Pilot Induced Oscillations
(PIO) Videos
F-4B Sageburner PIO (May 18, 1961):
Pilot J. L. Felson attempted high-speed, low-altitude record run
Pitch damper failure led to severe PIO
Destroyed airplane and killed
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department
MAE 4415/5415
Assn. #1
1) Using experimental data, find the lift and pitching moment (moment
taken about the quarter chord) per unit span for the NACA 2421 airfoil at
LLE
b = wing span, horizontal distance between wing tips
cr =
wing root chord length
ct =
wing tip chord length
x = x-distance to front of component, measured from nose tip, (+) back
z = z-distance to top of component, measured from top of fuselage, (+) u
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department
MAE 4415/5415 Flight Dynamics
2007-2008 Catalog Data:
MAE 4415. Flight Dynamics. (3) Advanced treatment of the
flight dynamics of atmospheric flight vehicles and spacec
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department
MAE 4415/5415
Assn. #2
1) Read Ch. 2.1 to 2.5
2) Do Problems 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.5
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department
MAE 4415/5415
Standard Atmosphere Project
Write a Matlab subroutine called "ATMOS" that calculates the standard day atmospheric
properties for a given altitude. Also, w
University of Colorado, Colorado Springs
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Department
MAE 4415/5415
Project #1
Glider Design
Due: March 11, 2008
MATERIALS
Each student glider must be able to be made from the following materials:
1/16 x 4 x 18 balsa sheet
Complex Plane / Time Response
Overview
Review
Second Order Differential Equations
Complex Plane / Time Response
Plot the Roots (Poles on a Complex Plane:
Poles)
P1,2 = N iD = a ib
P1
Im (b)
X
r = N
N
P2
cos =
= cos-1()
D
Re (a)
X
1
For Stability:
a<
Equations of Motion:
Moment Equations II
Overview
Review
Equations of Motion: Moment Equations I
Equations of Motion: Moment Equations II
6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
Force Eqs
y
Axis
x
Translational
Velocity
Angular Velocity
U
V
W
(+ out nose)
(+ out ri
Mass-Spring-Damper
First Order Differential Equations
Overview
Mass-Spring-Damper
First Order Differential Equations
1
Summing the Forces
F=ma
F
x
= m
d2x
dt 2
Fd + Fs = CV K x
f(V)
V =
dx
dt
f(x)
d2x
dx
m 2 = C Kx
dt
dt
d2x
dx
m 2 + C + Kx
Second Order Differential Equations
Overview
Review
First Order Differential Equations
Second Order Differential Equations
Second Order Differential Equations
&
m& + Cx + Kx = 0
x
(H)
= Ky
(NH)
Standard Form:
C
K
& + x + x = 0
&
x
m
m
Solution:
P2x +
C
Steady State Aero Forces: Lift
Overview
Review
Static Stability/Equilibrium
Stability and Control Derivative Notation
Steady State Aero Forces: Drag
Steady State Aero Forces: Lift
(Pitch)
Pitch)
1
5
3
Need to quantify the Force Terms
(Roll & Yaw)
Yaw
Equations of Motion:
Moment Equations I
Overview
Review
Equations of Motion: Force Equations
Equations of Motion: Moment Equations I
6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
Force Eqs
y
Axis
x
Translational
Velocity
Angular Velocity
U
V
W
(+ out nose)
(+ out right w
Equations of Motion:
Force Equations
Overview
Review
Coordinate Transformations
Equations of Motion: Force Equations
Body Axis System Summary
Axis
x
y
z
Translational
Velocity
Angular Velocity
U
V
W
(+ out nose)
(+ out right wing)
(+ out belly)
(+
rt h
Aircraft Dynamic Stability
Glider Construction Tips
Lesson Overview
Review
Dynamic Stability
Longitudinal Modes
Short Period
Phugoid
Lateral-Directional Modes
Spiral
Dutch Roll
Roll
Stability
Static Stability the initial tendency to
return to tri
Coordinate Axis Systems
Three Axis Systems
Earth (E)
Body (B)
Stability (Wind) (S)
- Right Hand Systems
- Origin at aircraft c.g.
Earth Axis System
x
y
E1
E2
North
East
z
E3
Down (into the earth)
1
Body Axis System
x
y
B2
z
B1
B3
Stability Axis System
Coordinate Transformations
Overview
Review
Coordinate Axis Systems
Coordinate Transformations
Coordinate Transformations
Heading Angle
Pitch Angle
Roll Angle
Earth Axis
System
3, 2, 1
Body Axis
System
2
Stability
Axis System
Need to transform all force