In todays experiment, we preformed Thin Layer
Chromatography (TLC). It is a technique used for the rapid separation
and qualitative analysis of small amounts of materials. The purpose of
doing it would be to identify each of the small materia
Alkyl halides are prepared by an SN1 and SN2 reactions
depending on the structure of the alkyl group. The simplest and most
common starting material for preparing the alkyl halides is using n-Butyl
alcohol. Primary alcohols usually react via
Alkenes are prepared from alcohols or alkyl halides by
elimination reactions. Alkyl halides undergo dehydrohalogenation
reaction to produce alkenes by heating with a solution of potassium
hydroxide in ethanol. Dehydration of alcohols is an ac
Alcohols are classified as either primary (1), secondary (2), or
tertiary (3). Primary alcohols is when the OH (hydroxyl) group is
attached to primary carbon. Secondary alcohols is when the OH
(hydroxyl) group is attached to secondary carbon.
On reaction with electrophilic reagents, compounds that contain a benzene ring undergo
electrophilic aromatic substitution.
The mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution involves two stages:
- attack of the electrophile on the pi electrons of the r
The chemistry of the carbonyl group is probably the single most important aspect of organic
- Classes of compounds that contain the carbonyl groups include many derived from
carboxylic acids (acyl chlorides, acid anhydrides, esters, a
Structure determination in modern-day organic chemistry relies heavily on instrumental methods.
- Several of the most widely used ones depend on the absorption of electromagnetic
Absorption of electromagnetic radiation causes a molecule to be e
Greek letters are commonly used to identify various carbons in aldehydes and ketones.
- Using the carbonyl group as a reference, the adjacent carbon is designated alpha, the
next one beta, and so on as one moves down the chain.
- Attached groups take the
Functional group interconversions involving alcohols either as reactants or as products are the
focus of this chapter. Alcohols are commonplace natural products.
Alcohols can be prepared from carbonyl compounds by reduction of aldehydes and ketones.
Benzene is the parent of a class of hydrocarbons called arenes, or aromatic hydrocarbons.
An important property of aromatic hydrocarbons is that they are much more stable and less
reactive than other unsaturated compounds.
- Benzene, for example, does not
Carboxylic acids take their names from the alkane that contains the same number of carbons as
the longest continuous chain that contains the -CO2H group.
- The -e ending is replaced by -oic acid.
- Numbering begins at the carbon of the -CO2H group.
Organometallic compounds contain a carbonmetal bond. They are named as alkyl (or aryl)
derivatives of metals.
Carbon is more electronegative than metals and carbonmetal bonds are polarized so that carbon
bears a partial to complete negative charge and the
Acyl chlorides, acid anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles.
- These compounds are generally classified as carboxylic acid derivatives, and their
nomenclature is based on that of carboxylic acids
The structure and reactivity of carboxylic acid derivativ
1. In the work-up procedure for cyclohexene the purpose of adding the
solid sodium chloride before neutralizing was to salt out the excess
2. The purpose of adding sodium carbonate solution is was to neutralize
any traces of phosphoric ac
An unknown sample was crystallized from benzene. On cooling to 0
C in an ice bath, the amount of crystalline material seen in the
flask was quite large but upon filtration it seemed to disappear.
Before filtering, benzene was in the for
This lab is an investigative one which requires the identification of
hydrocarbons. Four different main classes of hydrocarbons exist. These are the alkanes,
alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic compounds. The distinguishing features of these
1.) KOH cannot be used as a drying agent because it may induce the
formation of an alkene. The reaction many be reversed because the
hydroxide (-OH) group replaced the Cl in the reaction. This may react
with alcohol and form an alkene because of dehydroge
In this lab, we performed the re-crystallization of the substance
Acetanilide. There were five basics steps involved in the recrystallization process. First, the solute was dissolved at its boiling
point. Next, the hot solution was filtered t
You are given an unknown liquid whose composition is determined to be
64.9% carbon; 13.5% hydrogen; 21.6% oxygen. The molecular mass
has been determined to be 74.2 g/mole. The unknown is found to be
soluble in water and sulphuric acid. The boilin
Ethers are compounds that contain a C-O-C linkage.
- In substitutive IUPAC nomenclature, they are named as alkoxy derivatives of alkanes.
- In functional class IUPAC nomenclature, we name each alkyl group as a separate word
(in alphabetical order) followe