Current prognostic and predictive factors
Despite intensive efforts to identify new biological and molecular indicators of clinical
outcome and response to therapy, only two have found their way into routine clinical
Estrogen receptor (ER): t
Exam #3 Notes:
Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
Concept 35.1: Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs, tissues, and
- Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different
ADA enzyme applicable to the removal of uric acid. Without this enzyme, the chain of events is
disrupted and there is an accumulation of deoxy ATP and immune cells are destroyed.
Other possible solutions for ADA deficiency:
1. PEG-ADA injections. The firs
PROTEINS AND PROTEOMICS AS TOOLS TO INVESTIGATE CANCER
Human Genome Project found:
3,7 proteins per gene
1/1000 base pair difference: from the 3 million base pairs we have, about 1 of 1000
base pairs are different among indivi
Reference ranges for cancer markers amongst patients due to:
Healthy subjects, sex, relevant age population, benign
condition, selection of patient population, selection of an appropriate
cut-off point (maximize sensitivity, specificity and predictive val
Cancer gene therapy:
Gene therapy is ideal for anomalies that only affect a gene, ie, which are monogenic. For
anomalies that are multigenic (over a gene involved), gene therapy is more difficult to obtain
Cancer, besides being a multigenic
From DNA to proteins
There are many ways to control gene expression. One of these is transcriptional
regulation; a lot means transcription factors can decide if promoters are active or
inactive and epigenetic mechanisms mean that it is in control if physi
In Vivo gene therapy: This protocol is done using products that will make their effect as they
travel through the bloodstream.
Gene therapy in situ: This protocol acts directly onto a specific site where we want to express our
therapeutic gene, for exampl
Causes of cancer
Environmental factors: food, nutrition, pollution
Inheritable mutations: genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2, etc.
Somatic mutations: patient cannot transmit to descendants.
What is the situation with cancer today?
Improvement in diag
2. GENE TARGETING IS USED TO STUDY HEALTH AND
Almost every aspect of mammalian physiology can be studied
by gene targeting. We have consequently witnessed an explosion
of research activities applying the technology. Gene targeting has
now been use
Biomarker can be everything. Anatomical, histological, imaging
- Gene expression: we can use microarray technology, RT- PCR.
gene amplification: FISH/CISH
gene sequence: DNA sequencing
protein expression: IHC and ELISA.
Only IHC, Fish and Elisa are usuall
Exam #2 Notes
Chapter 46: Reproduction:
Concept 46.1: Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom
- Sexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female
gamete (egg) to form a zygote