Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
- The genetic material (DNA) of a cellits genomeis partitioned among chromosomes.
- Each eukaryotic chromosome consists of one DNA molecule associated with many
proteins that maintain chro
Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
- Each gene in an organisms DNA exists at a specific locus on a certain chromosome.
- We inherit one set of chromosomes from our mother and one set from our father.
- In asexual reproduction,
Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
- DNA controls metabolism by directing cells to make specific enzymes and other
proteins, via the process of gene expression.
- Beadle and Tatums studies of mutant strains of Neurospora led to the o
Mendel used the scientific approach to identify two laws of inheritance
- In the 1860s, Gregor Mendel formulated a theory of inheritance based on experiments
with garden peas, proposing that parents pass on to their offspring discrete genes that
Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes
- The chromosome theory of inheritance states that genes are located on chromosomes
and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for Mendels laws of
Genetic variation makes evolution possible
- Genetic variation refers to genetic differences among individual within a population.
- The nucleotide differences that provide the basis of genetic variation arise by mutation
and other processes that produce
DNA is the genetic material
- Experiments with bacteria and with phages provided the first strong evidence that the
genetic material is DNA.
- Watson and Crick deduced that DNA is a double helix and built a structural model.
- Two antiparallel sugar-phosp
A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
- Researchers discovered viruses in the late 1800s by studying a plant disease, tobacco
- A virus is a small nucleic acid genome enclosed in a protein capsid and sometimes a
New approaches have accelerated the pace of genome sequencing
- The Human Genome Project began in 1990, using a threestage approach.
- In linkage mapping, the order of genes and other inherited markers in the genome and
the relative distances between them
DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment
- Gene cloning and other techniques, collectively termed DNA technology, can be used
to manipulate and analyze DNA and to produce useful new products and organisms.
- In genetic engineering