Recombinant DNA technology comprises a battery of experimental procedures that are used for
inserting DNA segments from one organism into a vector, often a bacterial plasmid, and
perpetuating the insert DNAvector DNA combination in a host cell.
- Large am
Plants are genetically engineered by
(1) introducing a gene into plant cells that are growing in culture
- (2) selecting transformed cells
(3) regenerating a fertile plant.
Strains of the soil bacterium A. tumefaciens can genetically engineer plants natur
A DNA molecule has two polynucleotide strands that form an antiparallel double helix.
- The monomeric unit of a DNA strand is a nucleotide that consists of an base, a
deoxyribose sugar, and a phosphate group.
- The successive nucleotides of a DNA strand a
The production of a protein requires that the gene be properly transcribed and then that the
mRNA be translated.
- In prokaryotes, a promoter region is necessary for the initiation of transcription at the
correct nucleotide site, and a sequence at the end
The large-scale production of genetically engineered organisms in industrial-size bioreactors
(>1,000 liters) is not achieved merely by extrapolating directly from laboratory growth
conditions (0.1 to 1.0 liter).
- The temperature, pH, rate and nature of
In addition to the various gene-cloning techniques, a number of other procedures, such as the
chemical synthesis, amplification, and sequencing of DNA, are fundamental tools of molecular
- The chemical synthesis of DNA using phosphoramidite
A number of heterologous proteins have been successfully synthesized in prokaryotic host cells.
- However, many proteins require eukaryote-specific posttranslational modifications,
such as glycosylation, to be functional.
- Consequently, expression system
To be effective, a diagnostic test must be
- (1) specific for the target molecule
- (2) sensitive enough to detect minute levels of the target
- (3) technically simple, with unequivocal results that can be obtained readily.
- There are two categories of m
Microbial insecticides are currently being developed as environmentally friendly biological
substitutes for chemical pesticides.
- A number of subspecies of the bacterium B. thuringiensis produce a protoxin as part o a
parasporal crystal that, after inges
Many soil microorganisms have the ability to stimulate the growth of plants.
- With an eye to diminishing dependency on chemical fertilizers, the molecular
mechanisms by which bacteria promote plant growth have been examined.
- Plant growth promotion may
Bioinformatics grew as a field of study, for the most part, from the efforts to maintain, organize,
analyze, and make accessible large amounts of gene and genomic sequence information.
- GenBank, a gene sequence database, was established in the early 1980