Benefits of Smart Cards versus Magnetic
Stripe Cards
Smart cards have significant benefits versus magnetic stripe (mag stripe) cards for
healthcare applications.
First, smart cards are highly secure a
DECIMAL FRACTION TO BINARY
1. Multiply the fraction part by 2 and note down the product.
2. Take the fraction part of the immediate product and multiply it by 2 again.
3. Continue multiplying the frac
PRESENTING SIGNED BINARY NUMBERS (POSTIVE AND NEGATIVE) IN A
COMPUTER
There are 3 ways of presenting signed numbers in a computer:
Prefixing an extra sign bit to a binary number.
Using ones compleme
DATA REPRESENTATION IN A COMPUTER
Data: Raw facts and figures that a computer processes by following a set of instructions called
programs. The way in which data is stored and represented depends on t
DATA SECURITY THREATS AND CONTROL MEASURES
Information within the organization is the power of the organization and therefore the
information stored within the organization needs to be protected in or
Using Twos complement
It is achieved by getting ones complement of a number and then 1 is added. E.g
Find the twos complement of 4510
Solution
2 45
2 22
1
2 11
0
2 5
1
2 2
1
2 1
0
0
1
=1011012
In 8 bi
2. DATA INPUT
Is the act of entering the collected data and instructions in a computer using
an input device.
The input data is converted from human readable form to machine readable
form (binary form
DATA PROCESSING METHODS
These are different ways in which an organization may decide to convert
(process) data collected over time to information.
Data can be processed :
Manually
Mechanically
Electro
BINARY SUBTRATIONS
a) Direct Subtraction
02-02=02
12-02=12
12-12=02
02-12=12 borrow 1
102-12=12
For Example
111012-011102=011112
b) Ones Complement
For Example 510-310
i) Rewrite the problem as 5+(-3)
TYPES OF DATA REPRESENTATION
1. NUMBER SYSTEMS
There are 4 main categories of number systems:
a) Decimal number system
b) Binary number systems
c) Octal number systems
d) Hexadecimal number systems
a)
CONCEPTS OF DATA REPRESENTATION IN DIGITAL COMPUTERS
Data and instructions cannot be entered and processed directly into computers using human
language.
Any type of data must first be converted into m
TYPES OF COMPUTER PROCESSING FILES
There are several types of files used for storing data needed for
processing, reference or backup. These include:
Master file
Transaction file
Reference file
Backup
B) DECIMAL TO BINARY
To convert a number from base 10 to base 2, the number in base ten is repeatedly divided by
two until the dividend is zero.
On each division the remainder is noted.
Remainders whi
Advantages of Biometrics :
* Increase security - Provide a convenient and low-cost additional tier of security.
* Reduce fraud by employing hard-to-forge technologies and materials. For e.g.Minimise t
SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATIONS/CODING SCHEMES
In computing, a single xter e.g. a letter or symbol is represented by a group of bits.
Various codes have been developed to represent data in a computer and to
Data Backup Equipment
There are many choices you can make about the equipment you use to back up
your valuable data. Your decision will depend on factors such as the amount of
data that needs to be ba
Computer errors and accidental access
Data damage or loss is often caused by people who shouldn't have been let loose in
the first place. Whether you lose data through deliberate nastiness or complete
BACKUP MEDIA
QIC Quarter Inch Cassette - almost universally used for backing up file servers.
They have very high media quality and very large capacity (e.g. 40 to 80
gigabytes)
CD-R, DVD-R - one-time
Data Disaster Recovery Plan
Thanks to Jane W for suggesting this page
Read an excellent Age article explaining the need for tested backups when
everything goes wrong
You are the IT manager at work.
La
Hexadecimal to Binary
Here, each digit is represented by 4 binary digits.
A simple relationship exists between hexadecimal and binary because base 16 is 24 of 2.
The maximum hexadecimal digit i.e. F (
Multi-programming/ tasking
More than one program (task) are executed apparently at the same time by a
single processor (CPU).
The OS allocates each task a time-slice and decides the order in which the
CONVERSION OF NUMBERS FROM ONE SYSTEM TO ANOTHER
1. A) BINARY TO DECIMAL
i) Write the place value starting from right hand side.
ii) write each digit under its place value
iii) Multiply each digit by
Hexadecimal to Octal
In this case, convert the hexadecimal number into binary equivalent and then convert the binary to
octal i.e.
Hexadecimal
Binary
Octal
Example:
a) Convert BC216 to octal equivalen
DATA INTEGRITY
Is the accuracy, validity and completeness of data entered in a computer or
received from an information system.
Integrity of data is a major consideration when deciding a method of dat
DATA COLLECTION (Gathering/ Fact finding)
It involves looking for or getting data from its point of origin to the computer
for processing.
The methods involved for data collection include:
Interviews
BINARY ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS
In computing, Mathematical operations are performed in ALU. However, the ALU cannot perform the
binary subtractions directly. It performs it using complementation method.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
Is an 8-bit code scheme used to represent up to 256 xters. i.e. 2 8=256.
EBCDIC is mainly used in large IBM computers. E.g. A in EBCDIC is repre
5/7/15%
Data Mining Cycle
FINAL STUDY GUIDE
A brief description of what you should know
so far
Business Understanding
Supervised vs. Unsupervised
Formulating a target variable
Fill in the blank: I a
3/10/15
Data Mining Cycle
STUDY GUIDE
A brief description of what you should know
so far
Basic Terminology
Business Understanding
Instance/example
Formulating a target variable
Fill in the blank:
The boy and the puppy
Once upon a time, a Little kid that wants to buy a dog for play with him. One day he passed by the
pet stores and saw an advertisement that say Puppy in sales .When he saw the ad
Group 14 Project Proposal: Estimating the price of listed properties
Background
Zillow, an online real estate database company which features over 100 million houses across
U.S. is running a competiti
FOR
DATA MINING
BUSINESS ANALYTICS
Fall 2017
Homework #2
Due: turned in on NYU Classes by 11:59pm Mon 10/2/2017
_ Sankalp Verma_
(put your name above)
Total grade: _ out of _ points
Please answer all
FOR
DATA MINING
BUSINESS ANALYTICS
Fall 2017
Homework #1
Due: turned in on NYU Classes by 2pm on Sep 13, 2017
Sankalp Verma
(put your name above)
Total grade: _ out of _ points
Please answer all quest
DATA MINING FOR BUSINESS
ANALYTICS (MANAGERIAL)
Fall 2016
Homework #3
Due: turned in on NYU Classes by 5pm Wed Oct 18 th
_
(put your name above)
Total grade: _ out of _ points
This exercise should gui