Necessary and sufficient conditions for knowledge:
A necessary condition is something that has to be true if p is true.
A sufficient condition is good enough to make something true
i.e. being in Manhattan is a sufficient condition for being in NY
The paradox of omnipotence
-The power to do everything logically possible, hence why God cant make a square
Can make a God make a rock so heavy he cant lift it?
Either way, he seems to end up not being omnipotent:
Yes, then hes not omnipote
How do people and objects retain their identity?
Today were talking about people.
This is not about Im not the person I used to be
This is NOT about qualitative identity.
A & B Q.I. iif A and B have all the same properties
Deontological Moral Theory
the supreme principle/rule of morality
Universal Law Formulation
Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time [rationally]* will that is
should become a universal law.
The reason we were interested in the above was so we could hold them morally
responsible. This is the question of Beneficence i.e. what we should give.
This is ethics, which actually applies to how we live our lives.
What should o
Midterm = slightly more about induction/deduction
1. Something is if any necessary condition for there not being that thing is absent
2. Any condition is a necessary condition for itself
So, everything is fixed/unalterable
Running case vs Job taki
You cannot see possibilities, only actualities.
Like some possibilities, necessities cannot be observed, you can only see failure, you cannot
observe that the failure must happen
It is necessary that P if and only if it is not possible that not P
The Deductive Nomological
We need another form of argument for cases where the outcomes are likely i.e. taking
medication helps most people get better, therefore the reason someone gets better is because
they take medication.
What are the explanatory virtues? i.e. what traits make an explanation better than others.
Do explanatory virtues match up with likelihood
Are explanations li
We have looked at various attempts/discussions of the validity of induction
We will now assume that induction is justified.
Rules of Deduction:
Every single deductively valid argument can be made by the application of a few rules.
Modus Ponus & Mod
Principle of Uniformity of Nature (PUN): unobserved instances are like observed instances
All observed emeralds have been green
Unobserved emeralds ar