Water waves, sound waves, and waves that travel along a spring or rope are mechanical waves.
Mechanical waves require a material medium in order to have motion. Water, air, springs, or rope are the
materials that carry the energy of these mechanical waves
Linear Superposition and Interference
The Principle of Linear Superposition: when two or more waves are present at the same place
at the same time, the resultant disturbance is the sum of the disturbances from the individual
Transparent material transmitting light without distorting directions of waves; objects can be seen clearly
Translucent material transmitting light but distorting its path; objects are not seen clearly
Opaque material that does not transmit light; absorb
The speed of a mechanical wave depends only on the properties of the medium. Ex: Speed of water
depends on depth of water, speed of waves in a rope depends on the force exerted on the rope and
its mass per unit length
What happens when a wave moves from o
Electrostatics the study of electrical charges that can be collected and held in one place.
- A charged object shows electrical effects.
- Identical objects charged the same way repel each other.
- Objects charged differently attract.
- Benjamin Franklin
Michael Faraday (1791 1867): He developed the concept of an electric field. A charge creates an
electric field about in all directions. If a second charge is placed at some point in the field, the
second charge interacts with the field at that point.
When two (or more) waves of the same frequency interfere, a variety of different
results can be obtained. Consider first the special case of two sources separated by a
small distance d, sending out waves of the same frequency. The sources are in phase
Law of Conservation of Energy: within a closed, isolated system, energy can change form, but the total amount of
energy is constant - energy cannot be created nor destroyed
In a closed isolated system, the type of energy of an object can change, but the s