A complete understanding
of how sound relates to
terms of the speakers subconscious knowledge about
what constitutes a well-formed sound-meaning mapping
in terms of uncovering meaning from sou
Speech is the preferred modality for language.
Auditory cortices bilaterally
Primary auditory cortex (A1): Brodmann areas 41 and 42.
Auditory-association cortex (A2): Brodmann area 22.
How our brains
Task of the listener: Mapping sound to meaning
Requires converting the raw
signal into the kinds of sound
representations that connect to
What are those
Task of the l
Language is universal. Reading and writing are not.
Of the 3000 or so languages in the world, about two
thirds are unwritten.
Children do not learn to read as naturally as they learn
About 20% of children are affected by reading
Imaging brain function in real time (not just the
structure of the brain).
The brain is bloody & electric
increase in neuronal activity increase in metabolic demand for
glucose and oxygen increase in cerebral bloo
The deficit-lesion method for studying
Before functional neuroimaging techniques became available,
the only ways to study brain function were
The deficit-lesion method: Studying the behavior of brain
damaged patients and de
The process by which the basic sound-meaning
connections of language, i.e., lexical entries, are
How to find lexical access in the brain (of a healthy
How to find lexical access in the brain?
A. Manipulate the presence
Reading development lags behind other academic
development. Achieved reading skill is limited:
reading is slow and nonword reading is impaired.
Developmental dyslexia affects about 10-20% of
the population, 4% severely.
The study of the neural bases of cognition
Cognition: human intelligence in all its forms
The human brain
An extension of the
spinal cord which has
become bigger and
bigger as the species
Cerebrum (Latin: "brain):
Largest part of the brain.
Cerebellum (Latin: "little brain"):
Coordination and c
Lexical entry: the connection
between sound and meaning
Whats the nature of the
connection? Is it something you
I.e., is it possible to have both
your sound representations and
meaning representations intact
but just not be able