Other disciplines were being developed the 20th century.
Mycology: the study of fungi
Protozoology: the study of protozoa
Phycology: the study of algae
These applications of microbiological knowledge also were important to the deve
Additional magic bullets also were being discovered:
Domagk: discovered a synthetic chemical dye, called protonsil, which was effective in
treating Streptococcus infections
Waksman: actinomycin and streptomycin (first effective agent against tuberculosis)
Suggested that the spontaneous generation of animalcules resulted from a vital force that
reorganized the decaying matter from more complex organisms.
Boiled several tubes of mutton broth and sealed the tubes with corks. After several days,
The Second Golden Age of Microbiology
1940s brought the birth of molecular genetics to biology.
Molecular Biology Relies on Microorganisms
Salvador Luria and Dulbruck carried out a series of experiments with bacterial cells and
viruses that marked the sec
Microbiology: embraces and biologically diverse group of usually small life forms,
encompassing primarily of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa) and viruses
Microorganisms (microbes) are present in vast numbers in nearly every environment an
Anton van Leeuwenhoek: invented a simple microscope that could magnify objects
more than 200x.
Process of observation is an important skill for all scientists, including microbiologists,
and Leeuwenhoek believed only sound observation and experimentation
Classical Golden Age of Microbiology
Louis Pasteur Proposes That Germs Cause Infectious Diseases
Pasteur set out to understand the process of fermentation (a splitting of sugar molecules
into simpler products, including alcohol, acid, and gas) and other p
Robert Koch Formalizes Standards to Identify Germs with Infectious Diseases
Koch verified the germ theory that eluded Pasteur- his procedures became known as
Kochs postulates and were quickly adopted as the formalized standards for relating a
Fungi: include the unicellular yeasts and the multicellular mushrooms and molds.
About 100,000 species of fungi have been descried; however there may be as many as 1.5
million species in nature.
Most fungi grow best in warm, moist places and secrete diges
Ignaz Semmelweis & John Snow: carried out the first epidemiology studies, which
were instrumental in suggesting how diseases were transmitted- and how simple
measures could interrupt transmission.
Semmelweis: shocked by the numbers of pregnant women in hi