Carbohydrates Consist of Sugars and Sugar Polymers
Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
that build sugars and starches.
In simple sugars, like glucose, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2 to 1, the same as in
Biosphere: that part of Earth- including the air, soil, and water- where life occurs
Survival of microbes depends on cellular chemistry (the chemical reactions between
atoms and molecules that provide for the unique metabolism found in microbial cells)
Proteins Are the Workhorse Polymers in Cells
Proteins are the most abundant organic compounds in microorganisms and all living
organisms, making up about 58% of a cells dry weight.
High percentage of protein indicates their essential and diverse roles.
The final shape of proteins depend on several factors associated with the amino acids.
The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide represents the primary structure.
Each protein that has a different function will have a different primary structure.
Major Organic Compounds of Living Organisms
A typical prokaryotic cell is about 70% water. If all the water is evaporated, the
predominant dry weight remaining consists of organic compounds.
Organic compounds compounds related to or having a carbon basis:
Nucleic Acids Are Large, Information-Containing Polymers
Nucleic acids, among the organic compounds found in organisms, are organic compounds
composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous.
Two types function in all living things: deoxyri
Lipids Are Water-Insoluble Compounds
Lipids are a broad group of nonpolar organic compounds that are hydrophobic; they do
not dissolve in water.
Also composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but the proportion of oxygen is much
Lipids serve many mi