203. Which professional specialty focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of people with
A) personality psychology
B) biological psychology
C) clinical psychology
D) developmental psychology
204. Working in a community mental healt
100. Who was the functionalist who authored a textbook for the emerging discipline of
A) Wilhelm Wundt
B) John B. Watson
C) Edward Titchener
D) William James
101. Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much less likely to fo
509. Using emotional, behavioral, or cognitive methods to alleviate stress is known as
B) mindfulness meditation.
C) personal control.
510. To alleviate the stress of long work hours, Phara has arranged a more convenient work
121. Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels
and sexual motivation?
122. Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and
251. Just as Austin began telling his therapist about a painful childhood experience, he
complained of a headache and abruptly ended the session. A therapist using
psychoanalysis would most likely suggest that Austin's behavior is an example of
15. Early psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James focused on the study of
A) mental processes.
B) clinical psychology.
C) unconscious motives.
D) conditioned responses.
16. From the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the
305. Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly
approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
A) a decreased blood sugar level.
B) a decreased respiration rate.
C) contraction of the arteries.
237. Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality
A) Gordon Allport
B) Hans Eysenck
C) Carl Rogers
D) Walter Mischel
238. The MMPI was originally developed to identify
A) a hierarchy of needs.
B) the B
323. Miguel wonders how his friend Diego can wake up at 5:00 every morning to swim laps
before school. When he asks about it, Diego replies that he simply wants to realize his
highest personal potential in swimming. Diego's explanation is most consistent
37. Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her friends who recently
moved from Nigeria and those who moved from Thailand result primarily from
biological influences or from cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily
143. Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have been LEAST likely to encourage
research that focused on
A) maladaptive eating habits.
B) the meaning of frightening dreams.
C) effective parenting techniques.
D) crime-deterring legal practices.
318. One reason adults typically recall little of their first three years of life is that during
infancy they were unable to verbally label their experiences. This best illustrates that the
formation of long-term memories often requires
A) massed practice
429. By providing prospective terrorists with electronic chat rooms for interfacing online
with others who share their attitudes, the Internet most likely serves as a medium for
A) social facilitation.
C) group polarization.
D) cognitive di
425. People's positive emotions typically _ between the early and middle hours of
the day and typically _ between the middle and late hours of the day.
A) rise; rise further
B) fall; fall further
C) rise; fall
D) remain stable; fall
426. People who must g
490. One analysis revealed that pitchers were more likely to hit batters when the previous
batter had hit a home run. This best illustrates
A) ingroup bias.
B) the frustration-aggression principle.
C) outgroup homogeneity.
D) the just-world phenomenon.
333. Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
A) studying to be prepared for unexpected quizzes
B) inserting coins into a slot machine
C) paying a cashier for a candy bar
D) checking the mailbox to see if the
200. A fixation refers to an inability to
A) sort items into categories.
B) estimate the likelihood of events.
C) view a problem from a fresh perspective.
D) search for evidence that supports our ideas.
201. Brainstorming sessions that encourage people to
51. Echoic memory refers to
A) the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory.
B) a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event.
C) the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of
D) a momenta
163. Which principle suggests that inherited traits contributing to reproduction and survival
will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations?
A) behavior genetics
C) natural selection
D) positive psychology
164. Studying the impa
412. Mania is most likely to be experienced by those suffering
A) major depressive disorder.
B) bipolar disorder.
C) learned helplessness.
D) persistent depressive disorder.
413. Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of
260. Robert is extremely self-centered and does not accept criticism well. He is very active
on social networking sites and is constantly bragging about the number of Facebook
friends and Twitter followers he has. Robert is demonstrating the characteristi
423. Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective
communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond
his control. His assessments best illustrate
A) reciprocal determinism.
236. Researchers now recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term
memory and refer to it as _ memory.
237. When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impos
393. Warren is obsessed with thoughts of being harmed and feels compelled to repeatedly
check and recheck the already locked doors and windows of his house. A therapist
suggests that his compulsive checking has become so persistent because it temporarily
395. Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn
the ignition key to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of
A) observational learning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) operant conditioning.
312. Mandisa always picked up her infant daughter when she screamed because she couldn't
have the toy she wanted. As a result, her daughter screams whenever she doesn't get her
way. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) _ for screaming.
445. A sporting event that participating athletes perceive as highly challenging or threatening
is best described as a(n)
A) fight-or-flight situation.
C) Type A situation.
446. Physical and emotional responses to threatening a