203. Which professional specialty focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of people with
A) personality psychology
B) biological psychology
C) clinical psychology
D) developmental psychology
204. Working in a community mental healt
100. Who was the functionalist who authored a textbook for the emerging discipline of
A) Wilhelm Wundt
B) John B. Watson
C) Edward Titchener
D) William James
101. Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much less likely to fo
509. Using emotional, behavioral, or cognitive methods to alleviate stress is known as
B) mindfulness meditation.
C) personal control.
510. To alleviate the stress of long work hours, Phara has arranged a more convenient work
121. Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels
and sexual motivation?
122. Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and
305. Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly
approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
A) a decreased blood sugar level.
B) a decreased respiration rate.
C) contraction of the arteries.
15. Early psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James focused on the study of
A) mental processes.
B) clinical psychology.
C) unconscious motives.
D) conditioned responses.
16. From the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the
323. Miguel wonders how his friend Diego can wake up at 5:00 every morning to swim laps
before school. When he asks about it, Diego replies that he simply wants to realize his
highest personal potential in swimming. Diego's explanation is most consistent
333. Which of the following behaviors is typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?
A) studying to be prepared for unexpected quizzes
B) inserting coins into a slot machine
C) paying a cashier for a candy bar
D) checking the mailbox to see if the
251. Just as Austin began telling his therapist about a painful childhood experience, he
complained of a headache and abruptly ended the session. A therapist using
psychoanalysis would most likely suggest that Austin's behavior is an example of
163. Which principle suggests that inherited traits contributing to reproduction and survival
will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations?
A) behavior genetics
C) natural selection
D) positive psychology
164. Studying the impa
423. Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective
communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond
his control. His assessments best illustrate
A) reciprocal determinism.
425. People's positive emotions typically _ between the early and middle hours of
the day and typically _ between the middle and late hours of the day.
A) rise; rise further
B) fall; fall further
C) rise; fall
D) remain stable; fall
426. People who must g
200. A fixation refers to an inability to
A) sort items into categories.
B) estimate the likelihood of events.
C) view a problem from a fresh perspective.
D) search for evidence that supports our ideas.
201. Brainstorming sessions that encourage people to
395. Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn
the ignition key to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of
A) observational learning.
B) classical conditioning.
C) operant conditioning.
374. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for
food. This best illustrates the importance of _ in learning.
C) biological predispositions
D) mirror neurons
445. A sporting event that participating athletes perceive as highly challenging or threatening
is best described as a(n)
A) fight-or-flight situation.
C) Type A situation.
446. Physical and emotional responses to threatening a
445. On mental rotation tasks, homosexual men perform
A) better than heterosexual men and worse than heterosexual women.
B) worse than heterosexual men and better than heterosexual women.
C) better than heterosexual men and better than heterosexual women.
51. Echoic memory refers to
A) the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory.
B) a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event.
C) the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of
D) a momenta
260. Robert is extremely self-centered and does not accept criticism well. He is very active
on social networking sites and is constantly bragging about the number of Facebook
friends and Twitter followers he has. Robert is demonstrating the characteristi
466. Oxytocin is a stress-moderating hormone released by
B) a Type A personality.
C) a fight-or-flight response.
D) breast feeding.
467. The tend-and-befriend stress response may be more frequent among women than men
because in distressed
116. Which of the following best explains why, for those who are not poor, more money
buys little more than a temporary surge of happiness?
A) relative deprivation
B) subjective well-being
C) the adaptation-level phenomenon
D) the do-good, feel-good pheno
36. After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch Be a Safe Driver sign, California home
owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive
Drive Carefully sign in their front yards. This best illustrates
551. If two countries are rivals for exclusive control of the same area of land, their
predicament best illustrates
A) the two-factor theory.
B) superordinate goals.
C) the reciprocity norm.
D) a conflict.
552. A situation in which the individual pursuit
37. Lissette wonders whether personality differences between her friends who recently
moved from Nigeria and those who moved from Thailand result primarily from
biological influences or from cultural influences. In this instance, Lissette is primarily
143. Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have been LEAST likely to encourage
research that focused on
A) maladaptive eating habits.
B) the meaning of frightening dreams.
C) effective parenting techniques.
D) crime-deterring legal practices.
263. Almost all adult residents in the town of Roxbury attend weekly religious services,
whereas almost all adult residents in the nearby town of Worthington rarely do so.
Compared with the residents of Worthington, the residents of Roxbury are more likel
240. Among American women born before 1900, a mere 3 percent had experienced
premarital sex by age 18. In the United States today, almost half of high school students
report having had sexual intercourse. How do these changes in sexual behavior reflect
550. Aerobic exercise is an effective way to
A) reduce problem-focused coping.
B) increase cortisol production.
C) reduce serotonin activity in the brain.
D) lower the blood pressure reaction to stress.
551. In one study, women who went from active exerci