+
Module 3.3:
Normal Probabilities:
Empirical Rules
Dr. Ryan R. Ruf
+Normal probabilities, area under curve
1. Total area under
the curve is 1
2. Assumes normal
(symmetric)
distribution
Proportion of population of measurements
falling in a certain range =

Biostatistics
Professor Mary Killilea
Tuesday and Thursday 11:00 to 12:15
Location: 12 Waverly L120
Prof. Killileas Contact Information:
Office: Silver 602
Email: mek5@nyu.edu
Phone: (212) 998-8268 (88268 from a campus phone)
Office Hours: Wednesday 11:00

#Mary Killilea
# Introduction to R
# Sept 2015
# please add comments to the lines below to help you understand
# the code during recitations
# a comment line always starts with a "#" character (in R)
# this tells R to ignore everything on the line
# this

# Displaying Data
# Mary Killilea
# Updated Fall 2015
# Recitation Setup#
# 1. go to NYU Classes and download the ABD_all_data.zip file
#
# 2. unzip the data into a working directory or folder (can be a usb directory)
# -
# 3. Set your working directory i

Introduction to R
What is R?
R is a language and environment for statistical
computing and graphics; you can think of it as a
combination of a statistics package and a
programming language.
R is completely free
R runs on Windows, MacOS, Linux, and many

Describing Data
Descriptive Statistics
Also called summary statistics
Relative freq
Quantities that capture important features
of the frequency distributions
Describing Data
Location
Tells us about the average or typical individual
Where the observat

Analyzing Proportions
and the Binomial Test
Proportions
What proportion of a red wolf population is
female?
What proportion of cancer patients will live 10
years?
What proportion of the class is right-handed?
A proportion is the fraction of a populatio

Alcohol - Epi
February 23, 2016
Definitions
o Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUDs are medical conditions that doctors diagnose when a patients
drinking causes distress or harm. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSMIV),
published

Tobacco - Epidemiology
February 8, 2016
Aims
o Who smokes?
o Smoking surveillance data
o What are historical and recent trends?
o Youth/teen smoking
o Smoking: New York
Who smokes?
o Estimate:
o Overall
o HS Students
o Nonsmokers exposed to ETS
Who Smoke

Human
behavior plays a central role in the maintenance of health and the prevention of disease. Health-risk behavior can
be defined as any activity undertaken by people with a frequency or intensity that increases risk of disease or injury
(Steptoe & Ward

Alcohol - Bio
Feb. 22, 2016
Aims
o How is alcohol consumed?
o What does alcohol do within the body?
o What are the short-term and long-term effects?
o What are tolerance, abuse and dependence?
o How are they treated?
Alcohol
o Most widely-used drug
o Est

5/9/16
Fat?
Adipose tissue
Obesity: Biological
Considerations
April 13, 2016
Found in several areas of the body
Basically loose connective tissue
Stores energy in the form of lipids
Cushions and insulates the body
White (energy metabolism) and Bro

5/9/16
Philosophical Approach to Design
Obesity focus can vary in Public Health
Obesity: a social context
history
April 11, 2016
Body image
Social constructs discrimination
Medial concerns
Developmental concerns
Addiction
Habit
Life Choices
Ris

Tobacco - Public Health
February 10, 2016
Aims
o Tobacco control
o Social-Contextual model for tobacco control
o MPOWER framework
o Policy, worksite, media, community & youth approaches
o NYC
Individual behavior change
o Increase intrinsic motivation to

Alcohol - Prohibition
Feb. 17, 2016
Aims
Temperance and pre-Prohibition
18th Amendment
Aftermath
The 18th Amendment
Section 1
o One year from the ratification of this article, the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating
liquors within, th

5/9/16
Child Safety Seats
Babies
should be placed in rear facing car seats until they are
at least 1 year old and weigh 20 pounds
When
babies move into front-facing car seats, they should
remain in these seats until they are at least 4 years old or
weig

Fitting Probability Models to
Frequency Data
Goodness-of-fit test
Goodness-of fit test is a method for comparing an
observed frequency distribution with the
frequency distribution that would be expected
under a simple probability model (the null
hypothesi

Displaying
Data
Review of Data
Types
Categorical
Nominal (no order)
Ordinal (have order)
Numerical
Discrete (can be counted)
Continuous (can be
measured)
Whyis displaying data
important?
Visual comparison of
data
Communicating
science
How to draw

Module 2.1
Central Tendency
Central Tendency
Central tendency
refers to the way in
which quantitative
data tend to cluster
around some value.
Week 1 - Overview
09/26/16
2
Measures of Central Tendency
There are many different ways of specifying the central

+
Module 3.2:
The Law of Large
Numbers and the
Central Limit
Theorem
Ryan Richard Ruff, PhD
+
Law of Large Numbers
The average of a number of results obtained from a
series of trials will converge upon the expected value,
or the long-running average, of t

Probability Distributions and the
Normal Distribution
Probability distributions
Probability distributions are critical for
statistical inference. They quantify the
likelihood of every possible outcome of a
random experiment, survey, or process
Probabili

Module 1.3:
Scales of Measurement
and Variable Types
Measurement Scales
Statistics is about measuring and analyzing data. That data can
be measured in different ways. Broadly, there are four scales of
measurement, and which scale our data is measured in
d

Module 1.1
Overview of Biostatistics
What is Statistics?
Statistics is the science whereby inferences are made about specific random
phenomena on the basis of relatively limited sample material (Rosner,
Fundamentals of Biostatistics, 7th edition)
The stud

NYU Steinhardt
Lecture 2.2
Variability
Dispersion
We surveyed two groups of 5 students, asked about their BMI
as below. The mean BMI of these two groups are both 21.
Whats different about these two groups?
Group 1:
21.1, 20.9, 21, 20.8, 21.2
Group 2:
13,1

Module 1.2
Basic Probability Theory
Probability
According to the frequentist interpretation, the probability of an event
which we define as an outcome, or some happeningis viewed as
the proportion of the time that similar events occur the long run
For exa

Biostatistics
Chapter 1: Statistics and Samples
1.1 What is statistics?
- Challenges:
o No 2 individuals from the same population are alike
o Cannot measure everyone in the population
o Limited to a SAMPLE drawn from the population
Sampling bring uncerta

Today
Gender Inequality Finish
West and Zimmerman
Pascoe
Special Guest Lecturer Jessie Ford
Hook-up culture
Sexual assault/violence
Gender Inequality Today
Issues:
(1) Occupational Segregation
(2) Gender wage gap
Other issues:
(3) Political equality
(

Inequality II
February 22, 2016
Todays Lecture
Review: why does rising inequality matter
Poverty: Some facts and trends
Social Mobility after the break
Understanding Inequality:
(1) Davis and Moore
(2) Massey
Last Time.
Rising income share of 1%
1928=25

Impression Management
and Stigma
Lecture #5
February 9
New Hampshire!
Today
Review Molotch
Impression Management
Stigma
Labeling/Labeling Theory
Molotch Key Takeways
The Social Self
Actions constrained by the presence of
others
Different audiences for ou

Describing Data
Descriptive Statistics
Also called summary statistics
Quantities that capture important features of
the frequency distributions
Describing Data
Location
Tells us about the average or typical individual
Where the observations are cente

Families and Family Life
April 6, 2016
A Few Thoughts About Modern
Romance
Where do norms come from?
Social media as case study
Persisting gender norms in heterosexual unions
Reminder of power of social structure
Individual Action v. Structural Constraint

Estimating with Uncertainty
Chapter 4
What is the dierence Y and !
Y
is the mean of a sample
U ( m u ) is the mean of a population
We use Y
to estimate u , because we
typically cant calculate u
s is an estimate of
p is an estimate of p
What is Estima

Inequality I
February 22, 2016
Todays Lecture
Some Administrative Matters
Introduction to Inequality
Sociological Concept of Class
Rising Inequality
Poverty
Social Mobility
Admin
Exam
No Section Meetings on March 11
Readings/Revised Syllabus
Inequality:
T