4) Describe the four types of parenting styles according to the work of Diana Baumrind (1991).
Answer: The four types of parenting styles are based on the level of warmth and control
provided by the parents:
Authoritarian parents (low warmth, high control
6) The cognitive stage associated with ability to understand hypothetical situations is formal operations.
Page Ref: 50
7) Hypothetical-deductive reasoning is characteristic of adolescent egocentrism.
Page Ref: 50
8) According t
research in medicine.
Page Ref: 19
30) According to Woolfolk, over time theories
A) have returned to the core ideas set forth years ago by Sigmund Freud.
B) have become less important in educational research and practice.
C) have become more systematic an
4) Individuals who speak two languages are said to be _.
Page Ref: 175-176
5) Most bilingual programs in the United States use the _ approach for learning standard English.
Page Ref: 177
6) People who are inadequate sp
2) Describe the steps or stages that children go through in the process of developing language. Include
reference to the different ways that children use words and sentences in these stages.
Answer: Children begin to communicate through gestures and inart
Chapter 5: Language, Language Diversity, and Immigrant Education
1) Educational practices in American schools during the twentieth century have tended to be based on
A) a cultural deficit model.
B) lower-class, non-sectarian, rationalistic values.
Explanation: C) Nathan is probably in the preoperational stage because he is failing to demonstrate
conservation. If he were in the concrete operations or formal operations stages, he would indicate
that both pieces contain the same amount of cl
strategies. Also, specific tactics, such as mnemonic techniques, should be learned.
Page Ref: 308-310
Bill is having considerable difficulty remembering names, terms, and facts in his American History class.
On the last exam, he identifie
than their peers. In general, the findings suggested that giftedness was associated with better
adjustment and development than for non-gifted children.
Page Ref: 156
20) What affective characteristic has been added to Renzulli and Reis'
15) Receptive vocabulary refers to:
A) how open the student is to learning a second language.
B) the words a student can understand in spoken or written words.
C) words that change over time due to culture.
D) words children learn as a result of scaffoldi
34) Peter is a student at Mainstreet High School. He has had problems in the past maintaining
appropriate behavior in his science class. Mrs. Brady, a ninth-grade science teacher, observes Peter
during a laboratory experiment in her class. Peter is very c
The abilities relating to (mentally) storing,
organizing, retrieving and using
information previously encountered
Memory: short and long term components
Short term memory is that information at
the conscious level
STM is limite
Page Ref: 14
16) What type of correlation coefficient is likely to be obtained between reading ability and running
ability of high-school students?
A) Close to zero
B) Either +1.00 or -1.00
C) Strong positive
D) Weak negat
those consequences in terms of their impact on the students and the regular classroom teacher.
Answer: Labels are necessary so that students may receive the protection offered by special
programs and by PL 94-142, but labels may limit the students as well
3) Define gender bias and describe how it has been expressed in school.
Answer: Gender bias occurs when males and females are treated differently, mainly due to
stereotypes ascribed to each sex. For example, male infants are treated more physically by
16) Items can typically be stored in working memory for approximately how long?
A) About 20 seconds
B) A day
C) One minute
D) One week
Explanation: A) Working memory, with its limited duration, can hold information for about
9) Messages sent by releasing chemicals that jump across synapses involve
Explanation: C) Neurons send messages by releasing chemicals that jump across synapses
called classical conditioning.
Page Ref: 249
8) In an experiment, an electric can opener is used to open a can, and no salivation by the subject is
detected. After a number of pairings between the can opener's operation and food, any
38) Mrs. Lever allows Nathaniel to be the first to leave the uncomfortable bus because he has behaved so
well on the trip. The technique being used is
B) negative reinforcement.
C) positive practice.
A) fewer problems than adults whose childhoods were without caring adults.
B) friends who are socially competent and mature, even though their childhoods were essentially
C) higher self-esteem than adults who were socially competent as childre
brought her chemistry sets and equipment, such as stethoscopes and tongue depressors. When Maida
entered college, she enrolled in the pre-medical program without even considering other options.
According to James Marcia, Maida is exhibiting identity
Explanation: C) Culture and sociocultural theory are becoming an increasingly more influential
view of cognitive development than is Piaget's stage theory.
Page Ref: 55
40) According to Vygotsky, a child's cultural development is
21) Stepbrothers and half-sisters who live in the same household belong to _ families.
Page Ref: 78
22) Long-term adjustment to the divorce of a student's parents seems to be more difficult for _
than for _.
Answer: boys; girls
Page Ref: 8
Chapter 8: Cognitive Views of Learning
1) Compared to the behavioristic orientation, the cognitive perspective recognizes people as what type of
Explanation: A) The
Atkinson and Shiffrin Modal Model
of Memory (1968)
The process of forming an mental representation of a
stimulus or experience
Thought to be a key step to long term storage
Encoding may establish associations with information
Information about depth that can be
obtained with a single eye
- Texture gradient
- Aerial perspective
How is information retrieved from short term
Small study set of numbers were presented
Following study, a single test digit was
Participants were instructed to determine
whether the test digit was in the stud
Two main divisions
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Single Cell Recording
Event Related Potentials
Interference produced by incompatible
flankers depended on the concurrent
Figure shows additional
A working definition
Broad definition of attention:
Attention is the concentration of mental
effort on sensory or mental events
Innumerous stimuli or cues present
Only a fraction of whats available can be
One of the