Chapter 1: Introduction to
Psychological Statistics
Pygmalion In the Classroom:
Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968)
Descriptive vs Inferential statistics
Chapter 1
Population vs sample
Population parameters
Sample statistics
Random samples vs samples of
conve

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter 3-Displaying Data
3.1 Katz et al (1990) No Passage Group:
4
There is too little data to say very
much about the shape of this
dist

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter 2-Basic Concepts
2.1 Nominal: names of students in the class; Ordinal: the order in which students hand in their
first exam; Inter

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter4MeasuresofCentralTendency
4.1 Mode = 72; Median = 72, Mean = 70.18
4.3 Even without reading the passage, students are still gettin

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter7BasicConceptsofProbability
7.1 Views of probability:
a) AnalyticIf two tennis players are exactly equally skillful so that the out

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter6TheNormalDistribution
6.1 Distribution of original values:
4
Frequency
3
2
1
0
Score/Deviation/z
For the first distribution the ab

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter10Regression
10.1 Regression equation predicting low birthweight from high-risk fertility.
Y = Low Birthweight Percentage
X = High-

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter 5-Measures of Variability
5.1 Variability of NoPassage group:
Range = 57 34 = 23
St. Dev. = 6.83
Variance = 46.62
5.3 The variabil

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter11MultipleRegression
11.1 Predicting quality of life:
a) All other variables held constant, a difference of +1 degree in Temperatur

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter1Introduction
1.1 A good example is the development of tolerance to caffeine. People who do not normally
drink caffeinated coffee a

Null/Alt Hypotheses:
One-sample t (H0: M = )
Two-sample t (H0: 1=2)
Matched t (H0: D = 0, HA: D 0)
Pearsons Correlation (H0: = 0; there is no relationship.)
One-way Chi-sq (H0= no preference/difference.)
Two-way Chi-sq (H0 = no association or correl

Chapter 8: Statistical
Power & Effect Size
Statistical Power & Effect Size
The Alternative Hypothesis
Distribution
Null distribution is stated specifically
Alternative is the complement to the null
and is therefore not specific
Ex) Difference in weigh

Chapter 6: Interval Estimation
& the t Distribution
Example: Based on previous
research, a college instructor
believes that the average student
spends approximately 12 hr/wk
outside of class engaged in studying.
To find out whether this is true for
her s

Chapter 3: Measures of
Central Tendency & Variability
Imagine a researcher is interested in
measuring creativity. The following
are scores in creativity units
Chapter 3
Mean:
(population)
(sample)
(weighted mean)
This example for the weighted mean comes f

Chapter 2: Frequency Tables,
Graphs & Distributions
Example: Aron, Paris & Aron
(1995) Based on a stress
questionnaire given to N=151
students. Sample question:
How stressed have you been in
the last 2 1/2 weeks, on a scale of
0 to 10 (0=not at all stre

Chapter 4: Standardized Scores
& the Normal Distribution
John has three midterm grades:
Chapter 4
1
Finding a Raw Score form
a z Score
Properties of z-scores
The mean of a complete set
of z-scores is 0
The standard deviation is 1
Converting a set of raw
s

Chapter 5: The One-Sample z
Test
Suppose we wish to know whether
children who grow up in homes that
are close to electric power stations
have higher IQs than those of
children whose homes are not close
to power stations.
In the general population, IQ is

Chapter 7: The t Test for Two
Independent Sample Means
t-test for 2 independent sample
means
Sampling distribution of the difference
between 2 means
Standard error of the difference:
Comparing the means of 2 samples
with a z test (large sample test):

Chapter 9:
Linear Correlation
Perfect Correlation what would it
look like?
An exact match on one measure with
another
Final grades that are all exactly 10 pts
lower than the midterm (scaling issues)
The issue is about having the same
position on both

Chapter 10:
Linear Regression
A perfect correlation implies the
ability to perfectly predict one score
from another
Perfect predictions
Very simple, especially with z-scores:
the z-score you predict for the Y
variable is the same as the z-score for
the

StudentManualforFundamentalStatisticsfor
theBehavioralSciences(7thedition)
David C. Howell
The University of Vermont
Chapter9Correlation
9.1 Low birthweight statistics:
The two outliers would appear to have a distorting effect on the correlation coefficie