1. The spinal cord, reflexes, nerves ( spinal cord coverings, structure and function of spinal cord, branches of
spinal nerves, covering)
2. Brain, cranial nerves ( brain protection, function of each part of brain, cranial nerves 1-12, type, function,
1. Six Major Brain regions
Divided into pair of large cerebral hemispheres
Highly folded surfaces covered by 1.5-4.5 mm thick superficial layer of gray matter
- Called the cerebral cortex
- Conscious thought
- Memory Storage
Activity 1: Touch Receptors
List four sensations detected by the tactile receptors in the skin. (Hint: See lesson page 3.)
Have a volunteer touch each of these locations on your body using the same pressure
05.02 The Digestive System
By: Iazmyn Davilsaint 05.02 The Digestive System
By: Iazmyn Davilsaint Hourl
Hey there! My name is Sugar and I'm a sugar molecule cfw_I
hnow, how ironic). There are plenty ofus in the sugar molecule
family and we are found in
HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY
Dr. Hisham Moustafa
Introduction to Anatomy
Anatomy is the science that
describes the form and structure
of the organisms body.
Anatomy (= to cut open)
Branches of anatomy:
1- Gross anatomy
2- Microscopic anatomy
Know that the sequence for a peptide is (K-K-E-G-G-A-A-E-A-K) and the Pka values for the ionizable group are
Glutamic acid side chain (COOH)
Lysine side chain (NH3+)
January 9, 2017
Anatomy and Physiology
Contentious Bones: A Case Study on the Skeletal System
An 80-year old woman twisted her leg at the hip when she stepped awkwardly off the
stool she was standing on while placing a
February 17, 2017
With the scientific name Herpes Zoster, shingles has had a bad reputation as a disease and
many people shy away from being open about their sickness. However, shingles is the result of
November 15, 2016
DeLisle, Anatomy & Physiology
Suntans and Sunburns: A Case Study in the Integumentary System
The following is a case study of a student suffering from sunburns in his trunk and arms.
Sunburns are very common in peo
Joints (articulations) between the skull bones of adults
Bones bound together by dense fibrous connective tissue
Four major sutures:
Coronal (attaches frontal to parietal bones)
Squamous (attaches temporal and parietal bones)
1. Which is NOT a major function of the blood?
Protection against disease infection
2. The normal average temperature of blood is around?
3. The normal PH range for blood is?
4. Which of the following is not a component of blood?
Colon= Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
Sphincters: cardioesophageal, pyloric, anal
Amylase- starch. Bile + lipase- emulsify fats, pepsin- protein
Catabolismsubstances are broken down to simpler substances; energy is released
Fibrous joints Generally immovable
Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable
Synovial joints Freely moveable
o Hyaline/articular cartilage
3 main causes of anemia:
o Blood loss
o Lack of red blood cell production
o High rates of red blood ce
Gonads- primary sex organs. = Testes and Ovaries
1. Produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones
1. Gametes have 23 chromosomes. Sperm and Ova [eggs]
Testes surrounded by a fibrous connective tissue capsule
2. Each lobule contains
Urinary System: regulate blood volume, blood pressure, blood pH
Kidneys: location and structure
1. Back, T12 to L3, some protection from lower ribs. Right kidney is
2. Renal hilum- medial indentation. Ureters, renal blood ve
Chapter 13: The Respiratory System
Respiratory mucosa: lining of nasal cavity resting on thin-walled veins; functions to warm the air as it flows past.
Rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucosa; results in congestion & post-nasal drip.
Has to semi-independent parts
o A meandering network of lymphatic vessels
Transport back to the blood fluids that have escaped from the blood vascular system
o Various lymphoid tissues and organs scattered thru out the body
Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System
Cells take up nutrients and excrete wastes. Cells can make such exchanges only with the tissue fluid in their immediate
vicinity. The systems main function is transportation- blood as the transport vehicle: carries o
Chapter 10: Blood
Blood- transports everything nutrients, hormones, wastes, and body heat, through
o Fluid [connective] tissue.
o pH= 7.35-7.45 [acidosis or alkalosis], 8% body weight, 6 quarts
Plasma- nonliving fluid matrix
o 55% of whole
Three functions: it uses millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body.
Changes = stimuli and the gathered information = sensory input. It processes and interprets the sensory input and decides
Chapter 6: The Muscular System
Functions of Muscle
o Producing Movement-due to muscle contraction
o Maintainging Posture an Body Position- they function almost continuously to maintain posture by making tiny
o Stabilizing Joints- muscle tendo
Name & Number
Purely sensory; carries impulses for the sense of smell
1) Which of the following would NOT cause an increase in the heart rate?
a. Release of epinephrine into the blood
b. An increase in body temperature
d. Stimulation of the vagus nerve
e. Sympathetic stimulation
2) Which of the following would N
1) What portion of the ECG indicates ventricular repolarization?
a. QRS complex
b. T wave
c. P wave
d. P-Q interval
e. R spike
2) You are not an athlete and you are not physically fit. If you suddenly partake in
physical exercise, the increased demands of
1) The walls of _ are usually much thicker than the walls of _.
a. veins, arteries
b. capillaries, arteries
c. arteries, veins
d. capillaries, valves
2) Which of the following do/does not ultimately drain into the inferior vena cava
a. Hepatic vein
1) Most simply stated, the major function of the cardiovascular system is _.
2) The heart is located in the inferior _ with its _ pointed toward the left hip.
a. mediastinum, base
b. mediastinum, a
1) What unique feature connects the anterior and posterior blood supplies of the
brain, providing more than one route for blood to reach brain tissue in a given
a. Coronary circulation
b. Hepatic portal circulation
c. Circle of Willis
d. Ductus arte
1) The doctor sticks your finger, takes some blood, and does a WBC count. The count
(12,500 cells/mm3) indicates leukocytosis. What could you conclude?
a. It is a low WBC count, caused by certain drugs and anticancer agents.
b. You received a blood transf
1) Each of the following occurs when blood clots after a cut EXCEPT _.
a. platelets release clotting factor
b. thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin
c. fibrin filaments trap cells to produce a clot
d. thrombin converts fibrin into fibrinogen
1) If a person has type AB blood, then that person can receive blood from which type
a. people with types AB, A, B, or O
b. people with type AB but not O, A, or B
c. people with types A, B, or O
d. only people with types AB or O
2) A protein in th