Fluid & Electrolytes
Distribution of Body Fluids
Total body water
Intracellular fluid (ICF): Inside the cell
Extracellular fluid (ECF): Outside the cell
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Lymphatic, synovial, intestina
Alterations of Cardiovascular Function
Leading cause of death in the United States and the world - Total percent of deaths from cardiovascular diseases in the United
Genetic, neurohumoral, and inflammatory mechanisms
Underlying tissue and ce
Components of the Hematologic System
Composition of blood
7% of the plasma total weight
Majority are synthesized in the liver
Except immunoglobulins (made by plasma cells)
Function as carriers; control plasma on
Right Heart Function
Pumps blood through the lungs (pulmonary circulation).
Delivers blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
Is a low pressure system.
Left Heart Function
Pumps oxygenated blood through the systemic circulation.
Acid = molecule that can release H+
Base = molecule or ion that can receive or combine with H +
Volatile Acid: H2CO3 CO2 + H2O
o CO2 is eliminated by the lungs
o H2CO3 concentration determined by lungs and their capacity to exhale CO 2
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the process and stages involved in
developing a research idea from its inception to realisation. It is not designed to be an all
encompassing summary of the research process. It fprovides a brief
Miami Dade College School of Nursing
Fundamental of Nursing
Plan of Patient Care
Students Name: _ Date: _ Time: _
Clients Initials: _
Admission Date: _
Admitting Medical Diagnosis (es):
Surgical Procedure (s) (include date):
Split Half reliability- another subtype of internal consistency reliability. The process of obtaining split-half
reliability is begun by splitting in half all items of a test that are intended to probe the same area of knowledge
(e.g., World War II) in or
1) The body's first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens is _.
c. The skin
d. White blood cells
2) The immune cells involved in allergic reactions, especially in the lining of the
nasal passages, causing sneezing and
1) Allergic symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes, result from
2) The substance produced by virus-infected cells that helps other cells resist viral
infection is _.
1) Three important aspects of the adaptive defense are that it is antigen specific, it is
systemic, and it _.
a. has a memory
b. is housed in the epidermis
c. is only used one time
d. only occurs in MALT
2) Important in recruiting other cells to fight inv
1) Which of the following phrases best describes how the cells that form the walls of
lymph capillaries aid in regulating interstitial fluid?
a. The capillaries play no role in regulating interstitial fluid.
b. The edges overlap, making a mini valve.
1) The largest amount of carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in the form of
a. dissolved carbon dioxide gas in the blood plasma
d. bicarbonate ions
e. carbonic acid
2) What is the form of hemoglobin that is r
1) Which of the following would increase the pH of blood leading to alkalosis?
a. Falling asleep
c. Rebreathing air in a brown paper bag
d. Holding your breath
2) Oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the actual lung membrane s
1) The partition that separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity below is called
b. Nasal septum
d. Thyroid cartilage
2) What is the maximum volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs called?
a. Tidal v
1) Air in the conducting zone airways that does not contribute to gas exchange
between the alveoli and the blood is called _.
a. dead space volume
b. expiratory reserve volume
c. tidal volume
d. residual volume
e. alveolar air
2) Air must pass through thi
1) The cardiovascular and _ systems work together to supply the body with
oxygen and rid it of carbon dioxide.
2) Which of the following is not an organ of the respiratory system?