Friday afternoon note
The next quiz will be on Wednesday.
Two general questions from the previous four questions
Look at the lectures that are important.
Igneous rocks are ones that are cooled magma.
Mantle plumes: not all heat flow to the
Metamorphism is a process that leads to changes in the mineralogy, texture, and sometimes the
chemical composition of rocks. Metamorphism takes place where preexisting rock is subjected to
elevated temperatures and pressure.
Rocks buried during subduction
October 1, 2014
Law of superposition simply states that 1. in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is
older than the one above and younger than the one below. 2. By Nicolaus Steno in 1669.
Principle of Original Horizontality states that 1
Structures in Transform Zones
Strike-slip faults slip horizontally, parallel to the fault surface.
Right-lateral fault is also dextral fault, left-lateral fault is also sinistral fault
Restraining and releasing bends
A bend to the right on a right-slip fa
Oct 13 Quiz on Wednesday
Recumbent fold is a fold on its side.
History of life on earth. Chapter 22
Chemistry of life
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen: the basic building blocks of life, life on earth depend on these.
o Carbohydrates(sugars, starches) come from c
Oct 15, 2014
Evolution of the Continents
The geological history of our planets.
Hadean Eon to Archean Eon to Proterozoic Eon.
What is a continent?
Thick, low density crust 2.8 density. Most continental crust has 20km to 30 km. Oceanic 6km.
o Granite, sedi
All motions are relative motions. Left moving up which shows on a diagram that the hanging wall is on
top of the right.
Origin of the Earth and the Solar System. (Stages in the formation of our Solar System)
1. Formation of solar nebula and protostar
The Next Quiz on Friday 24th. Two evolution and two Davis lectures.
Friday Oct 31st. No lecture.
Monday November 3rd, midterm. Second midterm only from 2nd third, but expect you to know the first
Horizontal line on an inclined
1. Quiz on Friday. 2 from platt and 2 today. 2 from each lecture.
2. Halloween day, class is cancel.
3. Nov 3. Second midterm.
The downslope movement of Earth materials under the influence of gravity.
1. Example: slide 3. hillsi
Exam: Be on time, same format as before. 54 questions. Multiple choice, true false, each had seven
lectures. This is the last lecture on the exam.
Yellowstone national park. Hydrothermal groundwater. Water that is associated with igne
Oct 27 note
The buses will leave at 8:30am, and back at 4 oclock.
Cali and Texas are two major agricultural space. What is groundwater? We are taking out more water
than restoring it.
What happens to groundwater in hydrologic cycle?
It has more volume tha
Oct 22, 2014
This lecture will be continued on Friday. Two questions from this lecture.
Rivers have less energy as more sediments settle in the stream.
The Hydrologic Cycle U need to know it
It is a way for us to understand how is water cycle
Quiz on Friday next week.
Friday, Monday, next three.
Troposphere: 0-10km of the atmosphere. Ozone is within it.
Stratosphere: 10-50km, ozone is at 23-28km.
Equatorial regions are most cloudy and have most rainfall.
Aerosols are tiny liquid and so
Glaciers are accumulations of ice on land that are thick enough that their deeper levels become ductile
under the pressure of the overlying ice. The lower levels thus flatten and flow.
A glacier is a mass of moving ice! You need to know this. W
Quiz on Wednesday. 2 questions from each lecture.
Intrusive: magma didnt enter the surface.
Extrusive: magma becomes lava.
1. Batholith is bigger than 40 sq miles. Sierra Nevada batholith. Theres a large fault in this
mountain range that causes the Lone P
How to find answers to the quiz in lecture?
Which one statement about mineral is not correct?
Most minerals are crystalline, but a few are glassy. False.
There are chemical composition noted in many slides.
Most absolute, or all statements
Sept 24, 2014 Geol
Chemical Weathering: Three major process
Chemical weathering- removal of chemical constituents from rock. Rainwater carries the minerals away.
NaCl is the content in salt water. As seawater washes up on the
75% of global CO2 emissions come from burning of hydrocarbon.
Burning natural gas, wood, increase the release of CO2.
About 75% of global CO2 emissions come from burning hydrocarbon. Industry, transportation.
500 megawatt coal-fired power p
Our troubled atmosphere
Quiz on Friday Lecture on Monday, Monday, Wednesday. Start the quiz then the last lecture. Lecture on
Friday is an opinion. Friday will not be on the exam.
Tropospheric ozone is formed by the chemical reactions between nitrogen oxi
Which of the following statements about waves is closest to the truth?
Storm waves carry a lot sand up and out.
It is true that fair weather arent strong enough to move pebbles and also arent strong enough to move
Longshore drift is the trans
Dead valley, is caused by wind moving ice.
Quiz on Wednesday
Waves are agents of erosion (attack the coast), sediment transport (move sand), and deposition (tomolo)
Coastal erosion is caused by storm waves eroding the land, producing a WAVE-CUT pla
Nov 12, 2014
The greatest seismic hazard comes from subduction zone earthquakes.
Earthquakes are caused by the sudden recovery of elastic strain that has built up over a long period of
Magnitude measures the size of the rupture on a fault.
November 17, 2014
Earths deep interior 1
Sampling: 1. 12km deepest drilled hole. 2. 20km erosion. 3. 90km continental drift. 4. 200km volcanoes.
Xenoliths are samples of mantle or lower crustal rock brought to the surface by volcanoes.
Nov 19, 2014
S wave velocity greatly increases at the boundary of 400 and 650 km within the mantle due to different
Time to cool a layer is proportional to square of its thickness
Distance of cooling is proportional to square-root of ti
Oct 24 note
How to describe the Colorado River?
It is a meander. What is so strange about it? It is entrenched.
A meandering river in mature or old age is rejuvenated by uplift of the land or lowering of ultimate base
level. The plateau was uplifted above