Limitations of the Experimental Method
-One of the advantages of the experimental method is that
it enables researchers to exercise strict control over the setting.
- the more
control they exercise, the more unnatural and contrived the research setting be
The Experimental Method
- the term experiment refers
only to one kind of study, the kind in which researchers seek to determine the causes
-The experimental method , or the experiment, is the only research method that
can be used to identify
-The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation,
which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior.
- Lower levels of explanation are
more closely tied to biological influences, such
Protecting Human Participants and Animals Rights
-In 2002, the American Psychological Association (APA) adopted its most recent set of
ethical standards governing research with human participants so as to safeguard their
rights while supporting the goals
Difficulties in studying psychology
-human behavior is caused by factors that
are outside our conscious awareness, making it impossible for us, as individuals, to really
- The role of unconscious processes was emphasized in the theorizing
History of Psychology
-Psychology is rooted in two different approaches to human behavior.
The first is philosophy, a means of exploring and understanding the
general nature of many aspects of the world.
The second approach is physiology, the scientific s
-Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. The word psychology comes from the
Greek words psyche , meaning life, and logos, meaning explanation.
-Most psychologists work in research laboratories, hospitals, and other
-When neither the participants nor the researchers know
which participants are getting the treatment and which are in the control group, the
experiment is using the double-blind technique.
- Quasi-experiments do not provide evidence
The Correlational Method
-Perhaps the most powerful descriptive method available to psychologists is the
correlational method, a method used to establish the degree of relationship
(correlation) between two characteristics, events, or behaviors.
- A group
-Researchers in psychology rarely conduct studies using all members of a group.
-For example, researchers interested in studying the sexual behavior of American
women do not survey every woman in the United States.
- A sample is a part of a