Unit18WAVES
A wave is the motion of a disturbance
Mechanical waves require
Some source of disturbance
A medium that can be disturbed
Some physical connection between or
mechanism though which adjacent
portions of the medium influence each
other
All wav
Unit17THINLENSES
A thin lens consists of a piece of glass or
plastic, with each of its two refracting
surfaces as a segment of either a sphere
or a plane
Lenses are commonly used to form
images by refraction in optical instruments
ThinLensShapes
convergin
Unit16THENATUREOFLIGHT
SpeedofLight
All electromagnetic waves including light
travel (in vacuum) at the speed
c = 3 x 108 m/s
The product of wavelength and
frequency f is c
c = f
Problem 16.1
Find the wavelength of a 1200 MHz radio wave.
GeometricOptics
Unit15ElectromagneticSpectrum
MaxwellsPredictions
Maxwell used a mathematical framework to prove that
electric and magnetic fields play symmetric roles in
nature.
He hypothesized that a changing electric field would
produce a magnetic field.
Maxwell ca
Unit 13 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
Motion that occurs when the net force
along the direction of motion obeys
Hookes Law
The motion of a spring mass system is
an example of Simple Harmonic Motion
Hookes Law
Hookes law has the elastic force given by
F = kx
Unit26DCCIRCUITS
The currents in DC circuits are steadystate, i.e., not changing in time.
Typical problems on DC circuits are to
find the currents in all branches, given
the emfs and resistances.
HowtoDeterminePotentialDrops
The potential is high at the
Unit25CURRENTANDRESISTANCE
Whenever electric charges of like signs
move, an electric current forms.
A sustained flow of electric current is
powered by the electrical potential
differences.
ASignConvention
The direction of the current is the direction
pos
Unit24CAPACITORS
Capacitors
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy.
A capacitor consists of two conductors that are
close but not touching.
It is denoted in circuit diagrams by the symbol -|-
Capacitance
The capacitance, C, of a capacit
Unit23ElectricPotential
Electric field E is a vector property of the
space surrounding a charge.
Electric potential V is a scalar property of
the space surrounding a charge.
E gives rise to a force
F = qE
V gives rise to a potential energy
U = qV
Electric
Unit22GausssLaw
Gausss law is a mathematical
restatement of the physics contained in
Coulombs law.
It is widely applicable in finding electric
field of symmetric charge distributions.
It relates the electric flux flowing out a
closed surface and the charg
Unit21ELECTRICFIELD
Electrical forces are field forces
Gravity is another normally known field
force.
Field is the invisible mediator allowing
force to be exerted on one object by
another.
No physical contact is needed for field
force to take effect.
Elec
Unit20COULOMBSLAW
Two types of charges exist
They are called positive and negative charges
Named by Benjamin Franklin
Like charges repel and unlike charges attract
one another
BenjaminFranklin
1706 1790
Printer, author,
founding father,
inventor, di
Unit19INTERFERENCE
Light waves interfere with each other
much like mechanical waves do
If light is a wave, interference effects
should be seen.
A ripple tank experiment demonstrating mechanical
interference (view)
ConstructiveInterference
y = Asin[kx wt]