Biopyschology Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2, worth 50 points, will consist of 40 multiple choice questions (worth 1 point each), and an essay
question (worth 10 points).
Be sure to use the handouts and PowerPoints (posted to ANGEL) and your accompanying notes
-70 millivolts: inside has 70 mV more negative charge
Positively and negatively charged ions distributed unequally
Factors in Ion Distribution
40 Multiple Choices
2 short essays
- Identification of brain structure and function
- Potential essays are on exam guides. Will be one of them.
Drugs that activate a neurotransmitter are antagonists.
Drugs that are blocking a neurotransmitt
Lesion Studies: Evaluating the effects of brain damage
How Sites are identified
bregma (reference point on skull)
Example of RF lesion in rat preoptic nucleus (near the
Example of excitotoxic lesion in r
Structure and Function of the Nervous System
(Carlson Ch. 3)
Focus on Central Nervous System
Learning Objectives Overview
1. Describe the basic outline of prenatal development of the
central nervous system.
2. Define and use the directional terms of neuro
A. Agonists vs Antagonists
5 basic steps in Life Cycle of Neurotransmitter
B. Ways that drugs can influence neurotransmitters
Affect Production of neurotransmitter (step 1 in
life cycle figure)
- facilitate production (e.g., precursor
Historical Influences Notes
A. Philosophy: consciousness & mind
Descartes (1600s) and the mind-body problem
Descartes Model of Mind-Brain Interaction
B. Scientific Method
Emphasis on empiricism
I. Frontal Lobe Regions
II. Major impairments of Prefrontal Function from Neurological
A. Impairment of Executive Function (DLPFC)
1. What is executive function?
Blood-brain barrier; Essential Features of Neurons & Glia
I. The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)
Regulates the chemicals that can enter the CNS
from the blood.
Helps the CNS maintain proper composition of
fluids inside and outside neurons.
Animal Studies: Roles of central and lateral nuclei of the
amygdala, and vmPFC
Quirk et al., 2006: Lesions of vmPFC impair extinction after CR
established; inhibiting vmPFC with Aniso impairs extinction; neurons in
vmPFC are active dur
(focus on depression)
Video clip from Annenberg
#34 in list
In nature of disorders
2. Neurobiological differences associated with Depression
a. increased activity of amygdala
What makes a well-designed study?
What makes good data?
Reliable: consistent measure
Valid: accurate measure