Assessment of human-machine interface design for a Chinese nuclear power
plant. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 87, 37-44.
Hugo, J., & Engela, H. (2006) Function allocation for industrial human-system
interfaces. Proceedings from: The forth Int
Institute of Nuclear Operations (2006). Perry 1, 7/9/2006: Reactor operation in
unanalyzed region [440-060709-1]. Retrieved from http:/www.INPO.org on
August 14, 2008.
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (2007a). Monticello, 3/14/2007: Half scram
Controls too far apart
Incorrect Decision + Incorrect Action
No alarm noting abnormal
conditions and/or failures
Time limit to operation
Incorrect function allocation
Manual actions designed to be
FIGURE 1. Popula
25% respondents dissatisfied with the current that they have.
Section 2e reveals frequency of discomfort and pain experienced by the workers
in the parts, muscles and tendons of both feet during performing jobs. Descriptive
statistics found that more than
Thinking process is a method of problem measuring, analysis, and solving. Dr.
Goldratt proposed this method in 1994 to find out underlying constraints within a
system by common sense and logics. Thinking process emphasizes three main
questions (Rahman, 19
human actions (IAEA 1988, p.19). On reflection of the causes of the Three Mile
Island (TMI) accident, Kemeny et al. (1979) concluded that many incidents and
accidents in NPP applications were due to insufficient recognition of the
importance of the human
Ergonomics, 32, 81-90.
Mozurkewich, E. L., Luke, B. Wolf, F. M. (2000), Working conditions and adverse
pregnancy outcome: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 95, 623635.
ONeill, R. (2005), Standing problem. Hazards 91.
Phyllis, M. K. (2002), A compa
front position and another one at the back were the most regular leg positions
adopted by the workers during performing jobs in their usual workstations.
In section (2a) and (2b) of the questionnaire, the study observed that fatigue in
the left wrist and
Control Rooms of Nuclear
Huafei Liao, Jo-Ling Chang
Bechtel Power Corporation
5275 Westview Drive, Frederick, MD 21703
In an effort to investigate how human-system interface can impact human
(Zhang & Zheng, 2009; Li & Chang, 2005).
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Road transportation system is a complex system for large cities. Beijing has a
population of about 18 million. The road transportation system of Beijing is very
complex with mixed traffics of
there is a correlation between prolonged standing exposure and fatigue in
the general body and lower extremities, and
the developed questionnaire has shown a potential tool to identify the main
causes of discomfort and pain associated with prolonged stand
The fact that items Q4 and Q15 received the top scores indicates that manual
task execution is the most significant contributor to human errors. This is
reasonable considering that most operator actions in NPP control rooms are
proceduralized; hence slips
Epidemiology, 5, 6-13.
Grant, S., Aitchison, T., Henderson, E., Christie, J., Zare, S., McMurray, J., and
Dargie, H. (1999), A comparison of the reproducibility and the sensitivity to
change of Visual Analogue Scales, Borg Scales, and Likert Scales in nor
Similarly, applying the above steps to each test unit will generate the improved
CRT, see Figure 8.
Table 1. Opinions of causes of traffic congestion during rush hours
Causes Proportion Frequency
Traffic accidents in urban areas 1 3
Slow road development
participate in this study. Secondly, some licensed operators could not be reached
due to training and/or plant outage. Thirdly, certain plants were not able to
distribute the survey due to their policy restrictions, and some plants participated as
education and research. The geoscience visualization laboratory is funded by a gift
of $1M for design, remodeling, equipment, software, and early-life maintenance
and support. The selected room is approximately 800 feet, with adequate ceiling
height and w
A survey was developed based on the hypothetical factor structure shown in Table
1. Each survey question consisted of two parts. The first part asked power plant
operators to indicate their opinions on whether an item was likely to cause an HSI
error on a
larger number means stronger cause-effect relationship. The last question is an open
question and is used to check whether there are any major causes ignored by the
researchers. The participants may add one or more causes and rate their importance.
FIGURE 3. Validating processes for open questions
Participants were determined using the following criteria in order to achieve better
result accuracy. Firstly, the participants should cover all major kinds of road users
geometry and properties (geomodels) may be geometrically complex and comprise
millions of inferred properties (Oliver, Reynolds, and Liu 2008). Other data types
include dense and accurate measurements of velocity, radiation, resistivity, etc.,
TOC Think Processes
Guangyuan SHI1, Sheng-Hung CHANG2, Wei ZHANG1
Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
School of Management, Minghsin University of Science and Technology
The thinking proce
Road Transportation System
THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS AND ITS THINKING PROCESS
The Theory of Constraints (TOC), proposed by Dr. E. M. Goldratt in the 1980s,
aimed at improving enterprise productivity and quality through continued
Figure 2, the result is shown in Figure 5. Number near each arrow represents the
importance of that cause for that effect. It can be seen that all the data satisfy Rule 1
and Rule 3. It is also noted that too many vehicles on road and rush hour are
noted that except for item Q12 (manual actions designed to be automated), all
average responses on the rest survey items are above 4 (neutral), indicating that the
respondents tended to agree that those items were contributors to human errors in
with the categorization proposed by The United States Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (U.S. NRC) in Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Guidelines
(NUREG-0700) (NRC, 2007) were used to propose a hypothetical factor structure
for HSI related human errors. As lis
http:/www.INPO.org on August 14, 2008.
Institute of Nuclear Operations (2003b). Duane Arnold 1, 12/30/2003: High
temperature in fuel pool because of procedure use problem [331-000111-1].
Retrieved from http:/www.INPO.org on August 14, 2008.
explained by each
19.0 17.0 16.0 13.7 8.0
Cumulative % total
variance explained 19.0 36.0 52.0 65.7 73.7
*: p < 0.05; *: p < 0.01; *: p < 0.0001
a:Reference Table 1 for Item Description.
b: Means above the overall mean (5.1) are in bold type.
range of analyses and decisions.
The geoscience visualization laboratory centers on the subsurface elements of
this challenge, which include geophysics, geology, geomechanics, reservoir
engineering, seismology, and flow in porous media. The goal is to pro
factor structure and loaded on Factor 1 of the preliminary factor structure.
Factor 2 relates to system design that violates basic human factors design
principles by ignoring human physiological and psychological limitations.
Therefore, Factor 2 is labele
911,Poornon-motoristroad designEnsure smooth trafficPedestrians/riders/drivers need
earlyarrivalNeed to enhancetraffic throughcapacity
Quick arrival is travelsrequirementQuick pace inBeijing Rapid increas
respondents were given a token of appreciation to appreciate their contribution.
Before carrying out the study, the researchers have obtained approval from the
Research Ethics Committee of Universiti Teknologi MARA.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All collected da
long been available, these still must be checked by eye. Because of the size
(terabytes) of seismic data volumes, excellent visualization tools are needed. Other
examples of strongly visual geoscience and engineering tasks include: mapping of
Sanders, M. S. and McCormick, E. J. (1993). Human factors in engineering and
design. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Sheridan, T. B., & Parasuraman, R. (2005). Human-automation interaction. Reviews
of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 1, 89-129