Locate the cardinal points referenced to vertex V1: Follow the steps outlined in Lecture 22: Step 1:
!a ,1 #
n1 " n0 Ra ,1
Find the power of surface (a,1) ;
! a ,1 #
1.5 " 1 # 71.43 D .007 m
! a ,1 # 71.43 D
!a ,2 #
n2 " n1 Ra ,2
Also written as: F/number, F/#, f-number, f/#, f:# (where the number sign # is replaced with the actual value, i.e. F/4, f/8, f:16, etc.) Also called focal ratio, aperture ratio, relative aperture, f-stop, speed of the lens F-numbers d
Chapter 6: Thin Lenses
6.1 Lens Types and Shape Factors
Figure 6.1 Basic lens shapes and their associated radii of curvature: (a) convex lenses; (b) concave lenses.
! ! ! !
Lens shapes shown in cross-section (in the y-z plane). Rotate about the z-axi
5.5 Paraxial Ray Propagation
The propagation of a paraxial ray in an optical space is described by a linear equation:
(optical space is a single medium of a single value of refractive index) (a linear equation? .no surprise.a ray is a straight line
Ch. 4 Mirrors and Prisms
4.1 Plane Mirrors "A plane mirror not only bends or changes the path of reflected light rays; it also changes the handedness (parity) of a reflected image." ! bendsplease reserve this word for refraction " changes the handedne
Example 7.1 (out of the book)
Find the locations of P, N, F, P*, N*, and F*: Approach using Gaussian reduction !"#$%&'%$()"(*)"+,-).",/")$&*"0'./$&)1 !"#$%&'%$()"(*)",2).$%"+,-).1 !"#$%&'%$()"(*)")/)&(32)"/,&$%"%)45(*"6/7 = -f = efl in air). !"#$%&'%
7.4 Determining Cardinal Points The 6 cardinal points of a "thick" lens: Focal Points Principal Points Nodal Points F, F* P, P* N, N* Mt = 1 M! = 1
Figure 7.8 Gaussian optics illustrating the six cardinal points for the most general case with differe
Chapter 7Thick Lenses
"A real lens has axial thickness"
! ! !
two radii of curvature, one for each surface (front and back). some non-zero edge thickness. The line connecting the two centers of curvature is the optical axis. t = 0 assumption "#!thin
19-1 Class Exercise #1: Gaussian-reduce the human eye wearing eyeglasses. The Human Eye, with Eyeglasses:
t " f eye #
" 16 mm t !1!2 n& 1
!tot # !1 $ !2 %
!tot # !glasses $ !eye % !tot # !eye
the power of the combination of the ey
6.7 Thick lens equivalent of thin lens (6.10 Thin lens combinations) ! ! ! ! Optical systems usually consist of more than one lens or mirror (rarely is just one lens used). "How to combine multiple thin lenses into one, equivalent, thin lens" Image u
6.2 Gaussian OpticsCardinal Points for a (Thin) Lens
A lens (in general, any optical system) has 6 cardinal points: front focal point F back focal point F* front principal point P back principal point P* front nodal point N back nodal point N*
5.6 Gaussian Equation of a Single Surface
Figure 5.9 Paraxial ray traceagain!
# n! " n $ n!u ! % nu " y & ' (5.29) (R) Rewrite the paraxial refraction equation as a function of the object distance, z, and the image distance, z "# y y u% ; " u! % "z
Chapter 5: Curved Optical Surfaces
! "In order to produce an optical image, the rays or optical radiation must converge or diverge upon refraction or reflection." TRUE "Only surfaces of optical power, or curved surfaces, can have this effect on rays.
4.4 Glass !"Glass is: ! "ancient" - at least 5000 years old. - developed by the Phoenicians about 3000 B.C. ! silicon-based (SiO2, silicon dioxide, "silica".sand!).
! an amorphous solid ("vitreous") - no "long-range" order to the position of the atom
Chapter 3: Image Formation
An image.refers to the formation of a light pattern to replicate a scene. The light (radiant power) pattern formed by the optical phenomenon resembles the scene or object, and is called an image.
GTO pg. 49
An image is a 2-d
The Primary Rainbow
! ! ! !
The colors are caused by dispersion within water drops. Rays from the sun are refracted into the droplet (dispersion) These rays are reflected at the back surface of the droplet Th
10.2 Chief and Marginal Rays Marginal Ray MR The marginal ray begins at the axial object point and proceeds to the edge of the entrance pupil.
yentrance pupil !
CAentrance pupil 2 CAAstop 2 CAexit pupil 2
y Astop yexit pupil
! ! ! !
The MR lies
Figure 10.6 Rays used in (a) parallel ray tracing and (b) throughput ray tracing.
Figure 10.7 Marginal and chief ray definitions relating to entrance and exit pupils, objects, and images.
Figure 10.8 Marginal ray in the merid
9.2 Field Stop The field stop:
is an aperture (i.e. a real, physical opening). is located at a real image somewhere in the optical system (typically at the image or object). can be any shape (typically round, square, or rectangular). ! 35mm film
9.1.2 Telecentric Pupil Location In a telecentric system, one or both of the pupils are located at infinity.
Telecentric in object space "#$%&#&'$()'*&#+,+-.#-/#.0*)$&1#)$#-2 - the chief ray is parallel to the axis in object space - the magnificati
Chapter 8 Mirrors
Reflection: therefore and
n sin I i ! "n sin I r
I r ! " Ii n !"-n after a reflection
"Why use mirrors?"
# # #
To fold the optical system to get extra distance via virtual space. To correct (change) handedness. To produce mul
7.5.2 Gaussian Reduction of Three Thick Lenses
(a) Cooke triplet, sometimes called a Taylor triplet (after the optical designer who invented it) (b) Reduced equivalent lens.
Figure 7.14 Triplet surfaces and corres