The main distinguishing features of the Kingdom Animalia are:
o Ingestive method of digestion
o Sexual reproduction- mainly
o No cell wall
o Rapid response to stimuli (nerves and muscles)
The Diversity of Fungi
The Kingdom Fungi consists of organisms that are eukaryotic and mainly
multicellular. They are all heterotrophic decomposers that obtain their food by
Most members of the Kingdom Fungi have several structural elements in
Systematics: Seeking Order Amidst Diversity
Organisms are arranged or grouped by the science of taxonomy
-Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse
forms of life.
Organizing or grouping things helps in dealing wit
The Diversity of Protists
The Kingdom Protista
The Kingdom Protista represents an unusual mix of organisms.
The organisms found in this kingdom are all eukaryotes and most are single-celled for
most of their life-cycle.
Remember the eukaryotic differences
The Diversity of Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Protists
Microbes consist of organisms that are too small to be seen clearly without a
microscope (a.k.a. microorganisms).
These microorganisms include:
-prokaryotes, which range in size from 0.2-10 micrometers i
Plant Responses to the Environment
Plants perceive and respond to environmental stimuli by regulating growth and
development through the action of chemicals called plant hormones or growth regulators.
What are the stimuli that plants receive from their en
Plant Reproduction and Development
Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction
Many plant species can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
Asexual reproduction can occur via fragmentation
Fragmentation can be an artificial process (cuttings) or a natural process
The Diversity of Plants
>THE PRIMITIVE PLANTS
Since plants (like other organisms) originated in the water, the most primitive plant
types are the algae
The green algae and plant share some common traits however there are some major
differences. The algae
Plant Anatomy and Nutrient Transport
The basic design of land plants has two parts (see 43-1):
For the Angiosperms the two variation of this basic design are seen in the two Classes
(Monocots versus Dicots) (see fig. 43-2).
Cell Structure of Prokaryotes
The Domain Bacteria Contains Some of the Best Studied Prokaryotes
o The majority of the 18 phyla of Bacteria play a positive role in
o Proteobacteria contain the largest and most diverse group of
species, including E.