True Growth: increase in bone and muscle
oTrue growth stops at maturation
Fattening is not true growth.
Growth: is any change in body weight, size, shape, form,
composition, or structure over time
Development: progression of an increased comp
Chapter 2: Tissue Structure and Organization
a.Groups of closely associated cells that act synergistically to perform
a.Thin layer of tissues t
What is Estrus?
The time when the female is receptive to the male.
What is The Estrous Cycle?
The time interval between heats.
What is gestation?
Period of pregnancy
What is parturition?
What is the prenatal period?
Period of tim
Skeletal Bone Formation
I. Functions of Bone
a. Provides structure/ support/ locomotion
b.Provide protection of vital organs (heart/ lungs)
c.Storage of minerals (Ca, P)
d.Storage of fat (energy) in yellow bone marrow
e.Production of RBC in red bone marro
Sex Affects on Growth
Smaller versus Larger Species
It takes longer for large framed animals to reach a given
compositional maturity, therefore they are considered latermaturing and small framed animals are considered earlymaturing
Intact males versus Cas
Protein Synthesis (ANABOLIC PROCESS)
1.Nucleotide: molecular complex of 3 units:
2.Nucleic Acid: huge polymers of nucleotides (DNA, RNA)
3.Nitrogenous Bases: a component of the nucleotide chains of DNA
NNFA (Non-Nutritive Feed Additives)
Feed ingredient of non-nutritive value that stimulate growth, feed
efficiency and/pr is beneficial to overall health of the animal
oIonophores and intimicrobial agents
80-85% of all m
Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
i. cell replication or cell division (erroneously named)- it is
really the division of the cells nucleus
ii.Occupies only 10-15% of the cells life cycle
iii.Can occur every few hours, days, weeks.
I. Microanatomy (Skeletal Muscle)
i. Muscle bundle
a. Occupy 80-87% of total volume of muscle fibers.
b.Major myofilaments in skeletal muscle are:
i. Myosin (thick) filaments
Growth Patterns & Composition (Chapter 9)
See figures 9.1-9.9
Demonstrate a relationship between two (or more ) different
Independent Variabe: does not depend upon other factors
Dependent Variable: is influenced or
Dairy Cattle Implants
Hormones injected into animals to increase growth efficiency
Three types of implants
Implant type depends on feed type and intake
10 steers 5 get implants 5 dont
It is illegal to