Study Guide for Test 1 and 2
Unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response
Neutral stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, eliciting the conditioned
Treatment for Phob
Schedules of Reinforcement
Objectives Be able to:
Name the defining parameters of each simple schedule (6)
Name the characteristic patterns produced by each schedule
Identify the schedule which produces characteristic patterns of behavior
Define ratio str
Goals and Variables of Science
Describe the assumptions, characteristics, and goals of science.
Realism: Objects and events exist outside of our perception of them
Determinism: Events have a preceding cause
Regularity: Phenomena exist in r
Define Motivating Operation, Establishing Operation, and Abolishing Operation
Usually an internal drive; we try to make it exterior
Describe the differences between the characteristics and the effects of motivating
*Be able to describe each of the defining characteristics of the complex
schedules of reinforcement and to identify examples.
Definition: Requires completion of both an interval and ratio schedule of
1.) At what age is it generally recommended toilet training is initiated in the United States
and European countries? What is thought to be the detriment of initiating training earlier?
18 months; some people say dont do it to
Reinforcement and Punishment
Be able to identify the US, UR, NS, CS, & CR in respondent conditioning examples.
Unconditioned Stimulus, Unconditioned Response, Neutral Stimulus, Conditioned
Stimulus and Conditioned Response
A tone does not produce an eyebl
Differentiation and Avoidance
Define the direct and collateral effects of operant extinction.
Direct Effect is that the behavior decreases.
Extinction also has side effects
Extinction burst Increase in the frequency and intensity of behavior
Identify the characteristics of good behavioral measurement.
Objective: Definitions are observable and unambiguous
Reliable: Instrument produces consistent (repeatable) results
Valid: Instrument produces an accurate representati
*Describe variables related to the effectiveness of punishment.
Are punishers delivered for each instance of behavior or intermittently
The interval between the occurrence of behavior and the delivery of a
Ratios and Schedules
*Describe the simple schedules of reinforcement (i.e., how is reinforcement
delivered during each, of what characteristic pattern is each schedule associated).
Fixed ratio schedule:
Reinforcement is delivered after a fixed number of
1.) What was the defining characteristic of a variable interval schedule of reinforcement? What
were the defining characteristics of concurrent schedules of reinforcement (review topics 8 and
Variable interval schedul
1.) What do you think the saying means, The subject is always right.
Dont focus on what you think the subject would do, you should focus on what they do.
You cant say that they are wrong for not acting the way that you want
Hefferline, Keenan, & Harford:
Why is it more difficult to determine the sensitivity of human behavior to
reinforcement relative to non-human animals?
Self Instruction Most of their responses are due to variables that are experimentally
Lubinski & Thompson (1987):
1.) Provide a definition of private events.
Something observable to only one person. Things that go on inside you. Behaviorists
just treat these things like other forms of behavior. They do not totally ignore
Sargisson & White (2001) Discussion Questions
1) Describe what is meant by a delayed matching-to-sample procedure, and how it relates to a
forgetting function (i.e., how is it assumed that delay to selection affects accuracy).
You are give
Lynch & Cuvo (1995)
1.) Describe how a conditional relation is typically taught. Use the example of teaching
identifying a correct number of printed dots in response to a dictated number.
The comparison that you choose is conditional on th
Wantanabe, Sakamoto, & Wakita (1995)
Picassos: Girl Reading
1.) Given the training provided above, guess the author of the following paintings:
2.) What are the different characteristics of these paintings which allo
Herrnstein & Hineline (1966)
In a typically laboratory preparation of studying escape behavior, a rat may be present in a cage
with a lever. Shocks will be intermittently delivered by electrifying the grid floor and
Linscheid et al. (1990)
1.) What is the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) among institutionalized
individuals with developmental disabilities?
SIBs prevalence is estimated to be from 8-14% among institutionalized ind
Azrin et al. (1968)
*1.) The authors of this study describe an approach to initiating the development of behavioral
engineering, or towards developing equipment specialized in the detection of the occurrence of a
*Define establishing and abolishing operations. Be able to identify examples of
Definition Establishing Operation:
An event that increases the value of a reinforcer and evokes behavior that
has historically resulted in that reinf