Soap Opera amnesia is very rare
a. Dissociative Fugue
b. Triggered by stress, not by hitting your head, etc
c. Happened to a guy recently
Cues didnt even bring back the memories
ii. For this guy, it had happened before ten years earlier.
Short-term memory or working memory
Compare the characteristics of sensory memory, STM and LTM (codes, capacity, etc.).
-In the Sensory Register (Memory) the capacity is LARGE for holding information
but for Iconic (Visual) information was lost VERY quick
Long term memory
1. 3 systems that make up the LTM
a. episodic: specific events and experiences
a.i. i.e. lunch today, first kiss, wedding day
a.ii. usually get a sense of re-experiencing event when you remember it
b. semantic: general world knowledge, fa
1. what makes the difference in these studies is the type of encoding:
a. holistic/relational: focuses on the relationship between features
b. featural focuses on individual features/parts
b.i. holistic/relational leads to better recognition
What are the two components of attention mentioned in lecture?
1) Selection: Which stimulus gets chosen for conscious processing? By
doing too many things at once we degrade what we need to be doing
2) Capactity: how do we allocate our resources
Framework, History, Neuroscience
Two definitions of science: ACTIVE VIEW- science as something you do,
STATIC VIEW: Science as a product, as result from research
What are the goals of science?
1) Description: the phenomenon in a systematic way. Must be
Groupings for Memory
1. we have to make things unique and at the same time look for similarities in grouping
a. Epstien et al. (1975) did a study comparing distinctiveness and organization
a.i. During the study, participants listed difference
Long Term Memory
What are the 3 systems that make up LTM according to Tulving?
a.i. Episodic: specific events and experiences. Specific events or
experiences that you have had an episode of life (meal, first kiss,
wedding day, birth of brother or sister).
Applying Research on Learning
1. What is retrieval practice? What is the most optimal form of retrieval practice?
-Retrieval is the process of bringing back information that has been stored in memory.
-The most optimal form of retrieval practice is
Movie Paper 1
In the movie Still Alice, Alice Howland is a brilliant linguist who is diagnosed with early
onset familial Alzheimers disease. The movie documents the rapid onset of the disease and how
it affects her overall life. The movie shows many examp
CH. 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Define and describe the processes of habituation and sensitization.
a. Habitation: a decrease in the strength or occurrence of a behavior after
repeated exposure to the stimulus that produces the behavior.
Sensory memory and pattern recognition
4. What are the characteristics of iconic and echoic memory?
-Iconic Memory- (visual)
-this is a form of visual stimuli
-stores information in a Veridical form;(means that it accurately reflects
What are common reasons people fail to achieve their goals?
1) People structure goals poorly
set too many goals
have goals that may conflict with each other
2) Failure to sufficiently think about why they want to achieve goals
goals based on soc
What is the difference between direct and indirect tests of memory (explicit and
a. Implicit Memory (indirect test): Instructions are to complete a task, not specifically to
retrieve information from memory
Repeated Questioning Study
a. Woman comes in with dog and explains about care for it
Correct answers to answerable questions maintained across the
ii. I dont know response shifts to making up answers as time goes
on and kid
Explanations for infantile amnesia
a. Nervous system is immature
Brain dev isnt complete
ii. Too many neurons are present. Pruning takes place.
iii. Maybe you dont remember b/c your brain isnt ready to remember
iv. Maybe the im
Emotion and Memory
Mood congruence efects seem fairly robust
a. Sad old people experiment
II. Mood dependent recall efects are more difcult to obtain
a. Generating and recalling memories Experiment
Version 1 (Mood at study): Induce a mood, have peop
Exam Two Study Guide
Long Term Memory
a. General Memory Network Info
Cues make contact with info in LTM on a matching basis
1. Ex: House cue contacts house representations (Info stored
in LTM), causing activations to spre
Is it possible to recall something with high condence that never occurred to you?
Shopping mall study (Loftus, 1993)
a. Remember that time you got lost at the mall?
The family conspires against the kid to create the false memory
Mechanisms of Forgetting
Three possible mechanisms
1) Failure to store properly
a. Consolidation: taking the temporary neuron changes and making them
This takes time
ii. Needs time and correct conditions
b. Sleep studies (afect on memory whil
II. How do mnemonists, or memory experts, accomplish their feats?
a. Make sure to read
III. S. (Shereshevski)
Condition where you have cross-modal imagery interfe
a. Techniques youve come up with on yourself/someones told you
1. I before e except after c
1. Roy G. Biv, HOMES (Great Lakes)
1. Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally for order of operations
Single process models
a. Items that have been previously encountered are tagged or have a higher
strength than unseen items
Higher frequency words should be easier recalled AND recognized.
b. Project 2 shot this theory do
a. Iconic (Sight)
A very short lived memory
ii. Category cue works as well as location cue
1. Determining numbers vs. letters
iii. Another interpretation on the results of iconic memory tasks is
1. Stimulus persistence (neural activity)
Iconic memory: visual
Echoic memory: auditory
Modality effect: refers to a higher level of recall of the last few items of a list
when presentation is auditory rather than visual.
Suffix effect: type of auditory backward masking. Happens w
Memory in the media
1. Johnson et al. (1979)
a. Participants saw a series of pics and words, and when shown words they
were told to imagine a picture of the word
b. Saw pictures 2, 5, and 8 times
b.i. Saw words depicting objects + imagine 2, 5, 8 times
Exam 4 Learning Objectives
CHAPTER 10 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Define emotion and identify the three interrelated response types associated with it.
2. Describe the arousal (fight-or-flight response) system.
3. Describe the physiologica