Answers to HW 4: formal proofs
The answers to the exercises are in order in which they appear in the book, not by parts. 2.1 An argument is unsound if one of the premises is False in the World, even if the conclusion is True. Argument 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
12/4/2007
LING178
Installing LPL
Studying the structure of meaning and reasoning
Follow the basic installations that came with your software. If you have problems with the installation, let me know and we'll figure something out. I will need to
Homework #6 answers
4.32
In this exercise you need to put three sentences into NNF, meaning you need to make sure that any negation is only attached to an atomic sentence. 1. (Home(carl) Home(claire)
The negation is attached to a conjunctive sente
HW 7 Answers
7.7
Note the fact that the two sentences are not tautologically equivalent, but that the first sentence is a tautological consequence of the second.
7.8
The sentences in 7.8 are identical to those in 7.7, with the exception that we see
Homework #2 answers
1.7 Original 1 2 3 4 5 6 F F T F T F Rotated 90 degrees F F F F F F Rotated 180 degrees F F F T F T Rotated 270 degrees F F T T F F
For Sentence 7, something like SameCol(a,d) will do, anything that yields the same truth value wh
8/18/2007
Linguistics: Language Science
Linguistics: Language Science
An Introduction to Language and Linguistics
Linguistics is the formal name for the social science which studies language.
Q: What does a linguist actually study? A: There are m
10/4/2007
OVERVIEW
In this section we are going to look at ways to manipulate complex sentences. In the previous sections we looked at ways to prove that two or more sentences are equivalent (TTs, Fitch proofs, etc.). We will see several cases whe
12/4/2007
More complex claims of logic
Boolean Connectives
LING 178
So far, we were only able to do simple logical
operations.
In chapter 3 we will extend our scope by learning
about boolean connectives which allow us to make more complex logi
LING 178 HOMEWORK 1: SET THEORY / RELATIONS Answer all questions below on a separate piece of paper. All answers must be typed, handwritten pages will not be accepted. If you need special symbols for logical and mathematical operations, you should ha
9/30/2007
The Logic of Boolean Connectives
Truth functional
The Boolean connectives are said to be truth
functional, because they change the value of the complex sentence based on the truth value of the components. e.g. The value of P Q is T onl
8/22/2007
Introduction
Set theory is fundamental to mathematics and has a number of direct applications in linguistics. We start by characterizing briefly the most important concepts in the field of set theory.
LING 178
Set (definition)
A set
9/4/2007
Relations and Functions
LING 178
Relations
A RELATION holds between two or more ordered entities.
2 aardvark Homer everyone is greater than comes before is the father of admires 1 anteater Bart Madonna
Ordering is important. We cann
12/4/2007
PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC
What we have been doing over the last couple of weeks is called propositional logic. Propositional logic deals with the logic of simple atomic sentences with named objects. Cube(a) refers to a property of an object a.
9/18/2007
Logic of Atomic Sentences
Chapter 2
LING178 Argument, Validity, Proof
Arguments
When we want to determine logical consequence, we
want to examine the structure of the nature of our arguments.
That is the structure of claim and how we