myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had much
more labour upon me on his account than I had for myself; and that he would work the harder for
me if I would tell him what to do.
This was the pleasantest year
brought against them.
Article XLIII. We enjoin our officers to criminally prosecute the masters, or their foremen, who
have killed a slave under their auspices or control, and to punish the master according to the
circumstances of the atrocity.
being practiced in public. We desire that offenders be punished as rebels disobedient of our orders.
We forbid any gathering to that end, which we declare to be conventicle, illegal, and seditious, and
subject to the same punishment as would be applicable
Article XXVII. Slaves who are infirm due to age, sickness or other reason, whether the
sickness is curable or not, shall be nourished and cared for by their masters. In the case that they
be abandoned, said slaves shall be awarded to the hospital, to whic
and wife have different masters, they shall belong to the masters of the female slave, not to the
master of her husband.
Article XIII. We desire that if a male slave has married a free woman, their children, either male
or female, shall be free as is thei
The Code Noir (The Black Code)
The Code noir initially took shape in Louis XIVs edict of 1685. Although subsequent decrees
modified a few of the codes provisions, this first document established the main lines for the
policing of slavery right up to 1789.
from motives of interest as well as justice and humanity. Europe contains one hundred and twenty
millions of inhabitants. Query. - How many millions doth Africa contain? Supposing the Africans,
collectively and individually, to expend 5 a head in raiment
the speculation to me is pleasing - when the sable people shall gratefully commemorate the
auspicious aera of extensive freedom: then shall those persons particularly be named with praise
and honour, who generously proposed and stood forth in the cause of
infinite. The supposition is most obvious. It will be equally immense in Africa. - The same cause, viz.
civilization, will ever have the same effect.
It is trading upon safe grounds. A commercial intercourse with Africa opens an inexhaustible
source of we
ABB RAYNAL: PHILOSOPHICAL AND POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE SETTLEMENTS AND TRADE OF THE EUROPEANS IN
THE EAST AND WEST INDIES (1770)
Abb GuillaumeThomas Raynal (171196), known by his clerical title [abb refers to ecclesiastical
training], first published his
which is not contrary to the laws. Political liberty is the state of a people who have not alienated
their sovereignty, and who either make their own law, or who constitute a part in the system of their
The first of these liberties is, after
or played. It is not that they ever read romances, but these are the ancient amusements here, and
as natural to them as cudgel-playing and foot-ball to our British swains; the softness and warmth of
the climate forbidding all rough exercises, which were n
We have sworn not to listen with clemency towards all those who would dare to speak to us
of slavery; we will be inexorable, perhaps even cruel, towards all troops who, themselves forgetting
the object for which they have not ceased fighting since 1780, s
DECLARATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE BLACKS OF ST. DOMINGO
PROCLAMATION OF DESSALINES, CHRISTOPHE, AND CLERVAUX, CHIEFS OF ST. DOMINGO.
In the Name of the Black People, and Men of Color of St. Domingo:
The Independence of St. Domingo is proclaimed. Rest
found in the Caribbean and in the interior of the western South American coast.
Source: The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief Documentary History, translated, edited,
and with an introduction by Lynn Hunt (Boston/New York: Bedford/St. Martin's,
required to make him work; who calculates with coolness, every drop of blood which the slave
must necessarily expend in labor for him, and how much it will produce; who considers whether a
Negro woman will be of more advantage to him by her feeble labours
rapacious or needy government, is continually restrained in the most lawful means of acquiring
felicity. Liberty is stifled in all parts, by extravagant superstitions, by barbarous customs, and by
obsolete laws. It will one day certainly rise again from i
Let the ineffectual calls of humanity be no longer pleaded with the people and their masters:
perhaps, they have never been attended to in any public transactions. If then, ye nations of Europe,
interest alone can exert it's [sic] influence over you, list
to me in hand paid, and to the intent that a negro man slave, named Gustavus Vasa, shall and
may become free, have manumitted, emancipated, enfranchised, and set free, the aforesaid
negro man-slave, named Gustavus Vasa, for ever; hereby giving, granting,
imagination was all rapture as I flew to the Register Office: and, in this respect, like the apostle
Peter, (whose deliverance from prison was so sudden and extraordinary, that he thought he was in
a vision), I could scarcely believe I was awake. Heavens!
of things, and take every part in its order.
After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he could understand almost
all I said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with
my own history, or
a sublunary state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I; though I have
reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored
penitents. We had here the Word of God to read, and no farther off fr
entered into a long discourse with him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour of
the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from Heaven, viz. of repentance towards God,
and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to
old person had made all things, why did not all things worship him? He looked very grave, and, with
a perfect look of innocence, said, "All things say O to him." I asked him if the people who die in his
country went away anywhere? He said, "Yes; they all
MASTERWell, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take? Do they carry
them away and eat them, as these did?
FRIDAYYes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.
MASTERWhere do they carry them?
FRIDAYGo to other place, where they think.
pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said; but he was too earnest for an answer to
forget his question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By this time I
had recovered myself a little, and I said, "God will at last
Friday a thousand questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nations were near; he told me all he knew with the greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the
names of the several nations of his sort of people, but could get
him about the devil, the origin of him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it,
his setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of God, and as God,
and the many stratagems he made use of to delude man
he added with some warmth, "We save the white mans from drown." Then I presently asked if there
were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat. "Yes," he said; "the boat full of white mans." I
asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I