keys (AA through ZZ), making the data structure unnecessarily large and
unwieldy with respect to the amount of data that it stores.
In practice, structures for storage and retrieval of large amounts of data are
designed with more consideration to the medi
zeros with a down transition. Extra transitions are provided at bit cell boundaries
Mantissa The fractional part of a number expressed in scientific notation, as opposed
to the exponential part that indicates the base power to which the ma
Loop Interchange The process of rearranging loops so that memory is accessed more
closely to the way in which the data is stored.
Loop Peeling A type of loop fission. The process of removing the beginning or ending
statements from a loop.
Loop Unrolling T
Internetwork A network consisting of subnetworks that use differing protocols.
Interpreter A program that translates source code into object code by analyzing and
executing each line of the source code one at a time.
Interrupt An event that alters (or int
LAN An acronym for local area network, a network of computers within a single
building. Most LANs currently use the Ethernet networking technology at speeds
upward of 100Mbps.
Latch A flip-flop that is level-triggered.
Least Recently Used (LRU) Replacemen
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) An organization dedicated to
the advancement of the professions of electronic and computer engineering.
Instruction Cycle See Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle.
Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) The agreed
Floating-Point Operations Per Second See FLOPS.
Floating-Point Unit Specialized computer circuits that are optimized for the performance of fractional binary computations.
Floppy Disk Removable, low-density magnetic storage medium consisting of a flexible
Gateway A point of entrance to a network from external networks.
General Purpose Register Architecture An architecture that uses sets of general purpose registers to hold operands for instructions.
General Purpose Registers (also user-visible registers) R
HiPPI Acronym for High Performance Peripheral Interface, a high-capacity storage
interface and backbone protocol for local area networks.
Hit Occurs when the requested data is found at a particular memory level or a requested
page is found in memory.
Microprocessor A processor whose CPU, storage, and I/O capabilities are implemented typically on a single chip.
Microprogram Software used to interpret instructions into machine language.
Middleware Broad classification for software that provides services
MSI (Medium Scale Integration) Integrated circuits with 100 to 1,000 components per chip.
MTTF An abbreviation for mean time to failure, MTTF is a mathematical expectation
of the life of a component derived through statistical quality control methods comm
Resident Monitor Early type of operating system that allowed programs to be
processed without human interaction (other than placing the decks of cards into the
card reader). Predecessor to modern operating system.
Resource Conflict A situation in which tw
Signal-to-Noise Ratio A measure of the quality of a communications channel. The signal-to-noise ratio varies in proportion to the frequency of the signal carried over the
line. (The higher the frequency, the greater the signal-to-noise ratio). Mathematica
PSTN See Public Switched Telephone Network.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) The system of public communications
facilities to include transmission lines, switching systems, and other equipment.
Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) In telephony, a method f
across all of the drives, RAID-4 writes data in strips of uniform size, creating a stripe
across all of the drives as described in RAID-0. Bits in the data strip are XORed with
each other to create the parity strip. RAID-4 is essentially RAID-0 with parit
Point-to-point Bus A bus connecting two specific components in a system.
Polling When a system continually monitors registers or communications ports, testing
them for the presence of data signals.
POP See Internet Service Provider.
Port 1. A connection s
NIC See Network Interface Card.
Noise The electrical phenomena that work against the accurate transmission of signals.
Noise strength is measured in decibels (dB).
Nonblocking Interconnection Network A network that allows new connections in the
Parallel Communication Communication in which an entire byte (or word) is transmitted at once across the communication medium. The communication medium (data
bus or peripheral interface cable) must therefore have one conductor for each bit.
Opcode Short for operation code. The part of an instruction that specifies the operation to be executed.
Operating System Software that controls the overall operation of a computer system to
include: process scheduling and management, process protection,
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The computer component responsible for fetching
instructions, decoding them, and performing the indicated sequence of operations on
the correct data. The CPU consists of an ALU, registers, and a control unit.
Channel I/O I/O
of DSL technologies are Carrierless Amplitude Phase (CAP) and Discrete MultiTone
Service (DMT). CAP is the older and simpler of the two technologies, but DMT is the
ANSI DSL standard.
DS-x The signaling system employed by the T-Carrier system. DS-0 is the
Horowitz, Ellis, & Sahni, Sartaj. Fundamentals of Data Structures. Rockville, MD: Computer Science Press, 1983.
Knuth, Donald E. The Art of Computer Programming, 3rd ed. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Reading, MA:
Rawlins, Gregory J. E. Compar
In Figure A.10a, the value to reach all nodes is set to infinity. Paths from the
first node to its adjacent nodes are inspected, and each node is updated with the
cost of getting to that node (Figure A.10b). Paths from the node of lesser cost to its
through the graph consists of the collection of all of the shortest connecting links
between all of the nodes. The algorithm starts by inspecting all paths adjacent to the
starting node of the graph. It updates each node with the cost of getting there fro
11. Using Dijkstras algorithm, find a shorter route from New York to Chicago using the
mileages given in the adjacency matrix below. The value infinity () indicates no
direct connection between two given cities.
Albany Buffalo Chicago Cleveland
a) Rearrange the tree above so that a preorder traversal will print the node key val-
ues in alphabetical order. Change only the key values in the nodes. Do the same
for an inorder traversal.
b) Perform the other two traversals on both of the trees redraw
a. A General Graph
b. The Graphs Adjacency Matrix
Lets return to our example of finding an optimal route between two cities.
Chapter 8) maintains a pointer to the location of the physical record. This pointer
value is used by the operating system to retrieve the record from the disk. So the
physical record can be located virtually anywhere, but the sequence part of the
1s Complement Notation See Ones Complement Notation.
2s Complement Notation See Twos Complement Notation.
Access Time 1. The sum of the rotational delay and seek time on a hard disk. 2. The
time required to find and return a specific piece of inf