1.3 W a v e f r on t s a n d R a y s :
"A wave f ron t is, therefore, a set of points with equal phase located at regular intervals from the source of light." (pg.9) TheseintervalsareequaltothewavelengthoftheEMwave. "The optical path length relative to
2.2 Fermat's Principle
"In its simplest form, Fermat's principle states that light rays of a given frequency traverse the path between two given points in the least amount of time." (pg.31)
! A ray represents the shortest time between two points. ! Fer
Cardinal Points of Spherical Mirrors: Concave:
Figure 8.10 Single reflecting spherical concave surface in air.
"Pop Quiz": Draw a convex mirror and label the cardinal points.
Figure 8.13 Convex negative power and conc
Chapter 9: Optical Apertures
Figure 9.1 An aperture stop and a field stop.
A stop (diaphragm) is a circular opening in an optical system. (think of an opaque plate with a hole in it, a lens, a mirror, etc.) Two types of stops in optical systems:
Handedness / parity
! Handedness or parity is the orientation of the image relative to (the standard right-handed person, or) the original orientation of the object. (pg. 39 in our textbook) !The handedness or parity of an image (or object) quite liter
Chapter 8 Mirrors
Reflection: therefore and
n sin Ii ! "n sin I r
I r ! " Ii n ! -n after a reflection
"Why use mirrors?"
" " "
To fold the optical system to get extra distance via virtual space. To correct (change) handedness. To produce multi
9.2 Field Stop The field stop:
is an aperture (i.e. a real, physical opening). is located at a real image somewhere in the optical system (typically at the image or object). can be any shape (typically round, square, or rectangular). ! 35mm film i