Chapter 2 Outline
-Some social science paradigms
-Elements of social theory
-Two logical systems revisited
-Deductive theory construction
-Inductive theory construction
-The links between theory and research
Theory and Resear
Solomon Four-group design:
Four groups of subjects, assigned randomly:
Groups 1 and 2 are the control and experimental group
Group 3 does not have the pretest
Group 4 is only posttested
2 groups have pre and post tests
One group just gets post test
-Representativeness- Quality of a sample having the same distribution of characteristics
as the population from which it was selected
-EPSEM- Equal Probability of Selection Method. A sample design in which each
member of a population ha
(back of book, look at random number generator)
Used when researchers want precise, statistical descriptions of large populations.
A sample of individuals from a population must contain the same variations that
exist in the population
Political Polls and Survey Sampling
-In the 2004 Presidential election, pollsters generally agreed that that the election was
too close to call.
-To gather this information, they interviewed fewer than 2,000 people.
-This very expensive to do a poll of 2,
Criteria for Nomothetic Causality
1. A statistical correlation between the two variables (statistically related.)
2. The cause takes place before effect.
3. There is no third variable that can explain away the observed correlation as
-A multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially with the members of
each selected group being sub sampled afterward
Multistage Cluster Sampling
-Used when its not possible or practical to create a list of all the elem
Chapter 7 Outline
A brief history of sampling
The Theory and Logic of Probability Sampling
Populations and sampling frames
Types of sampling designs
Multistage cluster sampling
Probability sampling in review
Chapter 3 Questions
Study of human obedience.
Subjects had role of teacher and administered a shock of pupils.
Pupils were actually part of the experiment.
Involves shocking people; the student really thinks the pe
Chapter 3 Outline
The Ethics and Politics of Social Research
Ethical issues in social research
Two ethical controversies
The politics of social research
Ethical Issues in Social Research
1. Voluntary participation.
2. No harm to
Chapter 2 Questions
Social Science Paradigms:
Focuses on gender differences and how they relate to the rest of social
Draws attention to the oppression of women in many societies, and sheds light on
all kinds of oppression
Types of Nonprobability Sampling:
1. Reliance on available subjects:
Only justified if less risky sampling methods are not possible.
Researchers must exercise caution in generalizing from their data when this
method is used asking anyone you can get your