The Power of Critical
The systematic evaluation or formulation
of beliefs, or statements, by rational
Systematicbecause it involves distinct
procedures and methods
Evaluation and formulat
Photographs can be looked at again & again without changing, but memories can be
altered in the process of recollection
Try to remember something and your imagination will"fill in the blanks" with
particulars that seem plausible (page 47-49 of Invisible
lTrue Premises, False Conclusion
Impossible: no valid argument can have true premises and a false conclusion.
Cats are mammals.
Dogs are mammals.
Therefore, dogs are cats.
True Premises, True. Conclusion
Cats are mammals.
Tigers are cats
i- When an argument is valid, that means if the premises are true, the conclusion has to be true.
Inductively Strong- an argument is inductively strong if and only if, in any situation where the
Fallacious (weak)- refer to reasoning where th
The margin of error represents how close you can expect the population to be to that
The confidence level represents how likely the population really is to be within the
target percentage . So smaller margin of error= higher Strength of Reasoning
Order matters (unlike disjunctions)
Antecedent: "if" part
Consequent: "then" part
A conditional is false only when the antecedent is true and the consequent is
false. In any other circumstance, the conditional is true
A: Universal Affirmative- All S are P.
E: Universal Negative- NoS are P.
Some dogs are mammals
0: Particular Negative- SomeS are not P.
No dogs are mammals
1: Particular Affirmative- SomeS are P.
All dogs are mammals
Some dogs are not mammals
Judging Scientific Theories
Science seeks knowledge and understanding of reality, and it does so through the formulation,
testing, and evaluation of theories. Science is a way of searching for truth.
Science is not a worldview, and we can
Nonbasic Premises/Intermediate Conclusions- Statements that function as both a
conclusion and premise; arrows going back to it and from it
Inference- Each individual step in an argument where at least one statement is
providing evidence for another, a
If true satisfies falsifiability criterion; hypothesis likely to
Important truths are only rarely established on the basis of one test by
._ Explanation- is not an argument though can be part of an argument
A powerful inductive
that estimation in whatever direction seems appropriate. People start with an initial
anchor, and adjust to reach their final estimation
Our anchors are often not set from appropriate sources
We often adjust in the right direction, but generally fail to a
Chapter 3: Making Sense of Arguments
1. A deductive argument is intended to
provide conclusive support for its
2. A deductive argument that succeeds
in providing conclusive support for its
premise is said to be v
Automatic System = The component of our minds that is typically
uncontrolled, effortless, fast, and unconscious.
Reflective System = The component of our minds that is typically
controlled, effortful, slow, and conscious.
The illusion of attention
Candidate Bernie Sanders
1. If I were to make a poll trying to make Bernie Sanders look more appealing, I
would take a poll of citizens from the ages of 18-25. Younger people tend to support
Bernie Sanders bec
Philosophy Homework #11
A. We stationed undergraduate research assistants at various points along
University Avenue, right next to campus, to ask people walking along the street what
they think of the trolley
Philosophy Homework #12
A. It has been observed that every May and December, there is a sharp decrease in the
amount sleep that our students are getting. One hypothesis is that the changing weather
(a) Identify the conclusion: method of agreement, method of difference, joint
method of agreement and difference, or correlation (b) strong or weak
Identify errors in causal reasoning, (a) misident
Web: D2L- www.d2l.arizona.edu
Office hours: 1:00b to 1:30 PM Monday through Friday
Office: Social Sciences 130
Day One: 6/9/08
Identify the parts of categorical statements:
quantifiet. Some, all, none
Determine the quality of categorical statements:
Determine the quantity of categorical statements: