Growth Factors and the Cell Cycle
Oncogenes: cell proliferation and the cell cycle
G1 phase: synthesis of RNA and
proteins, preparation for S phase
S phase: DNA synthesis and
M phase: mitosis occurs, with
segregation of chromosomes
Molecular definition of cancer:
1. Cancer cells
b. Growth signals,
c. Lots if mutations
Organs and some cancer basics
What causes cancer and how do we know?
2. Genetic mutations
a. BRCA/2 it is a mutation and its any type of alter
Quiz. Week 7 (10 points total)
1. a. What is the Warburg effect? (2 points)
b. Describe how the Warburg effect results in the ability of a PET scan to identify cancer (include in
your answer what a PET scan is). (2 points)
Quiz. Week 8 (10 points total)
1. (1pt) Estrogen promotes breast cancer by inducing proliferation in breast epithelial cells, allowing for the
accumulation of DNA replication errors (true/false).
2. (3 points) How is the ductal epit
Discussion 7 (Week 9, 10/20/16)
1. A female patient received results from her pap smear. She was diagnosed with CIN1 and DNA testing
confirmed HPV18 infection.
1a) (4 pts) 5 years later, the patient did not develop cervical cancer. No surgery or other tre
Quiz 8 (10 points total)
1. (5 points) Many viral infection activates NF-kB pathway. Describe the molecular events of the NF-kB
pathway activation and how this drive tumorigenesis.
Viral infection activates IKK
IKK phosphorylates Ik
Week 6 discussion (9/29/16)
Jane Doe goes to her Dr. for her annual physical. She has had some aching in her back for months, but overall feels
pretty healthy. Her Dr. orders an X-ray, just to be on the safe side. Janes results return and they discover th
Week 7 discussion (10/6/16)
1. (6 pts) Two breast cancer patients are recently diagnosed, one with Luminal A subtype and the other with
Luminal B subtype. Both are at Stage 2. In addition to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, what treatment
plan the do
Quiz 7_Week 9
(10 points total)
1. (1 pt) Glioblastomas are brain cancers formed from abnormal neurons (true/false).
2. (1 pt) Prostate cancer is rarely treated with chemotherapy (true/false).
3. (1pt) Meningiomas are typically meta
Discussion 6 (Week 8, 10/13/16)
You are in a lab and given a malignant glioblastoma sample and a normal brain sample. You perform a series
of experiments and identified in the cancer sample two known molecular-driver alterations of glioblastoma.
The Biology of Cancer
Instructors: Justina McEvoy, Ph.D. and Gaung Yao Ph.D.
Professor, Molecular and Cellular Biology and Arizona Cancer Center
Teaching Assistants: Edgar Tapia, Emma Holland, Sarah Kwon
Preceptor: Roxy de Asis and Zohrab Keshishi
Quiz 2 (10 points total)
1. You are a scientist and you just finished sequencing a malignant tumor from a patient. You discovered a
mutation that disrupted the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in p53.
a). (5 points) How might this mu
Discussion Problem #1 (9/1/16)
A tumor is found to have an activating mutation in RAS and you need to develop a new therapy.
Assume there are no other problems in the cell.
a. (multiple choice) Which part of the cell cycle would be a good therapeutic targ
8/25/16 Practice Problem
You are a scientist investigating a cluster of cancer that has been reported
in a small town in northeastern Arizona. 1 in 5 inhabitants of this town
have developed malignant lung cancer, and all of the patients are under the
Discussion #2 (9/8/16)
(5 pts.) You just collected primary epithelial cells from a tissue and have cultured
them for a while and noticed that they stopped dividing. You realized that they are
senescent. You decide to immortalize them. Briefly, describe th
Quiz 3 (10 points total)
1. (5 points) You are working with normal cells in a culture dish and added a drug that promotes DNA damage.
You notice that the cells may be undergoing apoptosis. Describe the molecular events that turn on a
Discussion #3 (9/15/16)
You are in a lab and you are testing how a tumor responds to increased VEGF in a
mouse model. You evaluate your tumor and notice that your tumor is a little larger,
there is increased blood vessel formation and now there is a new t
How is cancer detected and evaluated clinically?
What is the Warburg effect and how is it used clinically?
What is HIF-1a and what does it do during hypoxia?
What is a sentinal node biopsy and why is it used?
MCB 325 Cancer Bio Exam 1 Study Guide Fall 2016
What are some environmental causes of cancer? Be sure to know the difference
between carcinogens and mutagens as well as examples of both.
Epidemiological studies can help identify the causes of canc
Chapter 8: Hormonally Driven Cancers: Breast and Prostate Cancer
Incidence and Survival
o 232,000 new cases
o 62,000 of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
o 40,000 deaths
Male breast cancer accounts for 1%
Most common for men (prostate) and women (breast)
Pathology microscopic analysis of cell and tissue morphology and expression patterns
IF antibody; color generated using fluorescent light
EGFR Family Expression in Breast Cancer
HER2 amplification is found in most cancers of the HER2+ sub